Turgor, solute import and growth in maize roots treated with galactose
Authors: Pritchard, J., Tomos AD., Farrar, JE., Minchin, PEH., Gould, N., Paul, MJ., Macrae, EA., Ferrieri, RA., Gray, DW., Thorpe, MR.,
Year of publication:2004
Journal: Functional Plant Biology, , Volume: 31(11), Pages: 1095-1103.
Publisher: C S I R O Publishing
It has been observed that extension growth in maize roots is almost stopped by exposure to 5 mM D-galactose in the root medium, while the import of recent photoassimilate into the entire root system is temporarily promoted by the same treatment. The aim of this study was to reconcile these two apparently incompatible observations. We examined events near the root tip before and after galactose treatment since the tip region is the site of elongation and of high carbon deposition in the root. The treatment rapidly decreased root extension along the whole growing zone. In contrast, turgor pressure, measured directly with the pressure probe in the cortical cells of the growing zone, rapidly increased by 0.15 MPa within the first hour following treatment, and the increase was maintained over the following 24 h. Both tensiometric measurements and a comparison of turgor pressure with local growth rate demonstrated that a rapid tightening of the cell wall caused the reduction in growth. Single cell sampling showed cell osmotic pressure increased by 0.3 MPa owing to accumulation of both organic and inorganic solutes. The corresponding change in cell water potential was a rise from -0.18 MPa to approximately zero. More mature cells at 14 mm from the root tip (just outside the growing region) showed a qualitatively similar response. Galactose treatment rapidly increased the import of recently fixed carbon (RFC) into the whole root as deduced by C-11 labelling of photoassimilate. In contrast, there was a significant decrease in import of recently fixed carbon into the apical 5 mm concomitant with the increase in turgor in this region. No decrease in import of recently fixed carbon was observed 5-15 mm from the root tip despite the increase in cortical cell turgor. These data are consistent with direct symplastic connections between the growing cells and the phloem supplying the solutes in the apical, but not the basal, regions of the growing zone. Hence, the inhibition of growth and the elevation of solute import induced by galactose are spatially separated within the root.