School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences

Staff Profile of James Hardy

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James Hardy
Senior Lecturer, Sport and Exercise Psychology, Deputy Head of School, Research
(01248) 38 3493
George Building, Normal Site

Institute for the Psychology of Elite Performance

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Having obtained his undergraduate degree from the University of Birmingham, James went to North America to see how they did sports psychology. He completed his postgraduate training (both MA and PhD) at the University of Western Ontario, Canada, under the supervision of Prof. Craig Hall. He is a regular presenter at international conferences and has published numerous research articles focusing on mental skills (specifically, self-talk and imagery) and group dynamics (e.g., team cohesion and leadership) in both the sport and exercise domains.


BSc (Hons) First Class - The University of Birmingham MA - The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada PhD - The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

Bangor University Teaching Fellowship July 2012.

Teaching Modules:

Psychology of Sports Performance (Year 2), Research in Psychological Skills (Year 3), Performance Psychology (M-level)

Research Interests:

Two distinct research programmes are currently being pursued. The first programme addresses the use of self-talk and imagery mental skills by athletes in both practice and competition settings. The second research programme focuses on group dynamics issues, specifically cohesion and leadership, in the sport and to a lesser extent exercise domains. 

Selected publications:

Peer review journal articles

  • Cronin, L., Arthur, C.A., Hardy, J., & Callow, N. (in press). Transformational leadership and task cohesion in sport: The mediating role of inside sacrifice. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology.
  • Blanchfield, A. W., Hardy, J., & Marcora, S. (in press). Effects of implicit priming on human performance. Frontiers in Cognitive Neuroscience.
  • Hardy, J., Begley, K. & Blanchfield, A. (in press). It’s good but it’s not right: Instructional Self-Talk and Skilled Performance. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. doi: 10.1080/10413200.2014.959624.
  • Milne, M., Divine, A., Hall, C. R., Gregg, M., & Hardy, J. (2014). Non‐Participation: How Age Influences Inactive Women's Views of Exercise. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research 19 (3), 171-191.
  • Blanchfield, A.W., Hardy, J., de Morree, H. M., Staiano, W., & Marcora, S. (2014). Talking yourself out of exhaustion: Effects of self-talk on perceived exertion and endurance performance. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 46(5), 998-1007. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000184.
  • Smith, M., Arthur, C.A., Hardy, J., Callow, N. (2013). Transformational leadership, communication, and team cohesion: A multilevel mediation analysis. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 14, 249-257.
  • Tod, D., Hardy, J., & Oliver, E. (2011). Effects of Self-Talk: A Systematic Review. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 33, 666-687.
  • Lawrence, G.P., Gottwald, V.M., Hardy, J., & Khan, M.A. (2011). Internal and external focus of attention in a novice form sport.  Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82(3), 431-441.
  • Oliver, E.J., Hardy, J., & Markland, D. (2010).  Identifying important practice behaviors for the development of high-level youth athletes: Exploring the perspectives of elite coaches. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11(6), 433-443.
  • Oliver, E.J., Markland, D., & Hardy, J. (2010). Interpreting self-talk: Associations between informational and controlling self-talk, and post-lecture anxiety and affect in higher education students. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 307-323.
  • Hardy, J., Roberts, R., & Hardy, L. (2009). Awareness and motivation to change negative self-talk. The Sport Psychologist, 23, 435-450.
  • Callow, N., Smith, M., Hardy, L., Arthur, C., & Hardy, J. (2009). Measurement of transformational leadership and its relationship with cohesion and performance level. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 21, 315-412.
  • Bell, J. J., & Hardy, J. (2009). The effect of attentional focus on golf performance. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 21(2), 163-177.
  • Oliver, E., Markland, D., Hardy, J., & Petherick, C. (2008). The effects of autonomy-supportive versus controlling environments on self-talk. Motivation and Emotion, 32, 200-212.
  • Hardy, J., Eys, M. A., Loughead, T. (2008). Does communication mediate the athlete leadership to cohesion relationship? International Journal of Sport Psychology, 39, 329-435.

Book Chapters

  • Hardy, J. & Zourbanos, N. (in press). Self-talk in sport: Where are we now? In R. Schinke, K. McGowen, & B. Smith, International Handbook of Sport Psychology. Routledge: London.
  • Hardy, J. & Oliver, E. (2014). Self-talk (pp. 659-662). In R. C. Eklund & G. Tenenbaum, Encyclopedia of Sport and Exercise Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Hardy, J. & Oliver, E. (2014). Positive thinking (pp. 543-545). In R. C. Eklund & G. Tenenbaum, Encyclopedia of Sport and Exercise Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Hardy, J. & Oliver, E. (2014). Thought stopping (pp. 750-751). In R. C. Eklund & G. Tenenbaum, Encyclopedia of Sport and Exercise Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Hardy, J. & Bell, J.J. (2014). Cognitive restructuring (pp. 139-140). In R. C. Eklund & G. Tenenbaum, Encyclopedia of Sport and Exercise Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Loughead, T.M., Mawn, L., Hardy, J., & Munroe-Chandler, K.J. (2014). Athlete Leadership: Theory, Research, and Practice (pp. 588-601). In A. Papaioannou & D. Hackfort, Routledge Companion to Sport and Exercise Psychology: Fundamental Concepts in Sport and Exercise Psychology. London: Taylor & Francis.
  • Hardy, J., Oliver, E., & Tod, D. (2009). A framework for the study of self-talk in sport. In S. D. Mellalieu & S. Hanton (eds.), Advances in Applied Sport Psychology. London: Routledge.

Editorships and Editorial Board Membership:

  • 2014 – present. Editorial Board member of the Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology.
  • 2013 – present. Associate editor for the Journal of Applied Sport Psychology.
  • 2010 – 2013. Editorial Board member of the Journal of Applied Sport Psychology.
  • 2005 – present. Editorial Board member of Athletic Insight.

External Funding:

  • Hardy & Hardy. Effects of psychological stress on group processes. England and Wales Cricket Board £80k. 2012.
  • Hardy & Lawrence. Psychological skill acquisition strategies for individuals with Down Syndrome. Knowledge Economy Skills Scholarships (ATM) ~£34k. Date: July 2012
  • Callow, Hardy & Arthur. The effect of transformational supervision on student engagement, retention and success. Higher Education Academy £54,500. Date: May 2012
  • Hardy & Arthur. The impact of a football-based educational programme on young adults not in education, employment, or training (NEETs). Knowledge Economy Skills Scholarships (KESS Mini) ~£34k. Date: May 2012
  • The Higher Education Academy; “Development and assessment of a transformational leadership questionnaire in higher education”—value £3,000. Date: April 2010.
  • Drapers' Company and Thomas Howell's Education Fund; “Transformational leadership and student learning experiences”—value £27,000 for a half funded PhD student. Date: May 2009.
  • Association for Applied Sport Psychology; “Effects of self-talk on intrinsic motivation”—value £1,000. Date: June 2009.
  • North Wales Health Care Trust; “Investigating factors that differentiate initiators versus non-initiators of Phase III Cardiac Rehabilitation”—value £3,000. Date: July 2009.

Hobbies and Interests:

James returned to his native North Wales in 2004 to accept a lecturing position within the School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, between 2008-2013 he was Deputy Head of School – Teaching and Learning. In his spare time he enjoys playing with his young family, trying to catch up on sleep, and spoiling walks around golf courses.

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