Professor Ted Gardener

Division: Financial Studies

Location: Room A.301, Alun Building

Telephone: 01248 38 2168



Professor of Banking and Finance and Consultant Director.

Professor Ted Gardener is a Consultant Director and Co-Director of the Institute of European Finance.  Formerly he was Head of the College of Business, Social Sciences and Law (retired in 2010) and before that Head of the Bangor Business School and a Pro-Vice Chancellor at Bangor University. Earlier in his career he held senior finance posts with Shell-Mex and BP Ltd. He has held Visiting Professorial posts at many other European universities, including the University of Goteborg and the Swedish School of Economics, the University of Eichstat, University of Namur, Louvain University, The Michael Smurfit Graduate School of Business and the Bank of Valleta Visiting Chair in International Banking at the University of Malta. In (1997) he was awarded an Honorary Doctorate in Economics for his research work by the University of Gothenburg.


Roles within the College of Business, Social Sciences and Law

  • Consultant Director
  • A director of the Board of North West Wales Management Development Centre Ltd.


Qualifications & Memberships of Professional Bodies

MSc, PhD, HonDocEcon, FCIS, FCIBS


Other Professional Interests

  • Chairman of the Management Committee of the European Association of University Teachers of Banking and Finance, 'The Wolpertinger Club'.
  • Member of the Board of the School of Professional Finance, UDC and Irish Institute of Bankers.
  • During 1995/96 he co-directed (with economists from Cambridge University) a major EC DG XV project (published by Kogan Page, 1997) on the impact of the European Single Market on the EU credit institutions and banking. Since then he has conducted project research for The World Bank and co-directed (with Cambridge University) a major banking project input to the HMT Cruickshank Review of Banking Services in the UK.
  • He has worked with FUNCAS, the research body of the Spanish Savings Banks Association on several research projects including capital adequacy, bank strategy development, financial exclusion and SME and Microbusiness access to finance.



Banking and Financial Services - Regulation, Development, Capital Adequacy and Risk, Financial Exclusion, Efficiency and Strategies.

Recent Publications


  • (with S. Carbo and P. Molyneux), Financial Exclusion, Palgrave-Macmillan, 2005 pp. 1-184.
  • (with B. Moore and P. Molyneux), Banking in the new Europe – the impact of the single European Market programme and EMU on the European Banking Sector,  Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.
  • (with P.C. Versluijs),  Bank Strategies and Challenges in the New Europe, Palgrave-Macmillan, 2001.

Chapters in Books:

  • (with J. Williams), Competitive Banking in the EU and Euroland, in A.W. Mullineux and V. Murinde (eds), Handbook of International Banking, Edward Elgar, 2003, Chapter 5, pp. 130-155.


  • (with Y. Altunbas, Carbo, S. and P. Molyneux), Examining the relationships between capital, risk and efficiency in European banking, European Financial Management, January, 2007.
  • (with S. Carbo and P. Molyneux), Financial exclusion in Europe, Public Money and Management, February, 2007.
  • (with P. Molyneux and C. Girardone), Analysing the determinants of bank efficiency: the case of Italian banks, Applied Economics, 36, February, 2004 (I) .
  •  (with M. Brown), A frontier analysis of banking added value, The Service Industries Journal, Vol 24, No.4, July, 2004 (N/I).
  • (with K. A. Aziz Alsahlawi), Development banking and technological development: a case study of industrial development banks in the GCC countries, The Service Industries Journal (N), Vol 24, No.5, September, 2004.
  • (with J. Williams), The Efficiency of European regional banking, Regional Studies,Vol 37 (4) 321-330, June, 2003 (I).
  • (with J. Williams & S. Carbo), A note on technical change in banking: the case of European savings banks, Applied Economics (I) March, 2003.
  • (with J. Williams & S. Carbo), Efficiency in banking: empirical evidence from the savings banks sector, The Manchester School, 70 (2), pp.705-719, March, 2002 (I).
  • (with Y. Altunbas, P. Molyneux and B. Moore), Efficiency in European banking, European Economic Review, 45/10, Nov, 2001(I).
  • (with B. Moore and P. Molyneux), The Impact of the Single Market Programme on EU banking, The Services Industries Journal, 21, 2, pp.47-70, April, 2001.
  • Access to SME and microbusiness finance in the EU: strategic implications for banks, Perspectives del Sistemo Financiero, 2007.


Postgraduate Teaching (Part time):

  • Bank Financial Management (ASB-4402/4502)


Visiting appointments:   

Bank of Valleta Visiting Chair in Internation Banking, University of Malta. 

Visiting Professor, Michael Smurfit Graduate School of Business, UCD.

Prestigious awards:

Co-director of research for the Treasury’s Cruickshank Review of Banking Services that preceded the UK Competition Commission Inquiry into UK Banks in 2002.

Editorial board membership:

Revue de la Banque, The Service Industries Journal.

Other editorships:

Co-editor (with Molyneux) of World Banking Abstracts.

Research assessors:

Queens Belfast, Malta.

Reviewer for Journal of Banking and Finance and The Service Industries Journal.

Keynote addresses, and other prestigious guest presentations:

Invited guest speaker – World Bank Savings Institute/The World Bank conference on Access to Finance, Brussels (2006).

Organisation of conferences, learned societies and consortia:

Chairman of the Association of European University Lecturers in Banking and Finance (the Wolpertinger Club), and convenor of the annual conference and Doctoral workshop in Banking and Finance.