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Module SXL-4148:
Expert Evidence in Court

Module Facts

Run by School of Law

20 Credits or 10 ECTS Credits

Semester 2

Organiser: Dr John Olsson

Overall aims and purpose

This module focuses on the role of the expert witness in the England and Wales jurisdiction, although the principles apply to expert evidence in common law jurisdictions generally, and these are largely compatible with the requirements of the experts in the other UK jurisdictions and the Republic of Ireland. The expert has duties to both the court and to those who commission work from him. Slightly different rules apply depending on whether the case is a civil claim, a family law case, or a criminal prosecution. Knowledge of standards of expert evidence such as the Daubert standard and the Frye standard. Cognitive bias.

Course content

The centrality of expert evidence in modern civil and criminal litigation. The origin of expert evidence in courts. The growth of expertise in the last thirty years. The duty of the expert to the court, the duty of the expert to the professional and lay clients. The ethics of giving expert evidence, including ethical dilemmas. Procedural matters regarding expert evidence. Statute and case law relating to expert evidence. How courts evaluate the acceptability of expert evidence. Admissibility of hearsay evidence int he context of expert evidence. The 'instruction' of experts. Experts' continuing duty to courts. Expert witness training. The ethics of contact between experts and lawyers/police officers. The ethics of research in the expert witness context.

Assessment Criteria


Displays ability to critically understand and evaluate, within the context of having a specialised knowledge, the role and function of expert evidence, and a keen awareness of how an expert should approach the task of giving evidence. Ability to critically research and apply research knowledge to the task showing a highly developed understanding of the techniques used in the giving and questioning of expert evidence, and an advanced ability to understand and evaluate the scholarship in the field.


Needs to display an advanced mastery of the specialised field of expert evidence, and have a critical, systematic knowledge of the structure of expert evidence in a case. In addition, an analytical and judicious understanding the context of expert evidence within the framework of a prosecution, or civil, or family case. Critical ability to research into questions relating to expert neutrality, impartiality and objectivity and to critically assess how the litigation process can undermine the expert’s objectivity, which in turn could damage the integrity of the jurisprudence in a case. A critical understanding of techniques, methodology and ways of appraising courtroom discourse techniques. Must be able to evaluate contributions of courtroom participants, research inventively and originally into these questions and be able to apply research knowledge to the task. An ability to critically evaluate scholarship in the field, in addition to showing a conceptual understanding of the field.


In addition to the above, needs to display a critical understanding of the key ethical questions for experts and how they approach the task of giving ethical evidence, including the handling of ethical dilemmas. Ability to critically evaluate and think in depth about the difficulties of answering questions under cross examination and the limitations this poses on the expert’s task of assisting the court.

Learning outcomes

  1. Critically understanding judicial intervention in the giving of oral expert evidence.

  2. Critically understand courtroom procedures relating to expert evidence.

  3. Critically understanding, analysing and evaluating the role of expert evidence, and the procedures in UK courts of admitting expert evidence.

  4. Understanding in a critical, evaluative way, and able to analyse key concepts in relation to expert evidence, especially in relation to the expert's duty to the court.

  5. Develop a critical understanding of the principles and dialectic of expert evidence and the ethical questions surrounding expert evidence.

  6. Gain in-depth knowledge of how lawyers are able to undermine expert evidence in order to promote their own case.

  7. Analyse in an advanced and critical way, and evaluate analytically how judges and juries respond to expert evidence in the courtroom.

  8. Evaluating in an advances analytical way to the effect of expert evidence on the outcome of a case.

Assessment Methods

Type Name Description Weight
Written assignment 75
Court Scenario 25

Teaching and Learning Strategy


The teaching strategy will consist of 11 x 2 hour teaching blocks. For each session, students will be expected to have prepared essential reading together with any special assignments given for that particular class. Essential preparatory readings will be notified to students in advance or provided in advance of class.

Private study 178

Transferable skills

  • Literacy - Proficiency in reading and writing through a variety of media
  • Computer Literacy - Proficiency in using a varied range of computer software
  • Self-Management - Able to work unsupervised in an efficient, punctual and structured manner. To examine the outcomes of tasks and events, and judge levels of quality and importance
  • Information retrieval - Able to access different and multiple sources of information
  • Inter-personal - Able to question, actively listen, examine given answers and interact sensitevely with others
  • Presentation - Able to clearly present information and explanations to an audience. Through the written or oral mode of communication accurately and concisely.
  • Argument - Able to put forward, debate and justify an opinion or a course of action, with an individual or in a wider group setting
  • Self-awareness & Reflectivity - Having an awareness of your own strengths, weaknesses, aims and objectives. Able to regularly review, evaluate and reflect upon the performance of yourself and others

Subject specific skills

  • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of advanced level legal theories and legal findings, related to topics like the functioning of legal institutions, criminal offenses, criminal procedure, legal culture, and the social function of law.
  • demonstrate the ability to work with others in a team to achieve reasoned, critical, comparative perspectives upon legal questions.
  • present reasoned, critical, comparative responses to the views of others on legal subjects within a Welsh, United Kingdom, European and/or global context;
  • present to others from a specialist or non-specialist background, reasoned, critical, comparative presentations relating to legal subjects within a Welsh, United Kingdom, European and/or global context;
  • write sustained critical expositions of any given area of the legal subjects studied and present the findings clearly, logically and coherently;


Reading list

Redmayne, M. 2001. Expert Evidence and Criminal Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press. James, M., and Hodgkinson, T. 2006. Expert Evidence: Law and Practice. Andover, Hants: Sweet and Maxwell.

Courses including this module