Modules for course F710 | BSC/MES
BSC Marine Environmental Studies

These are the modules currently offered on this course in the 2019–20 academic year.

You can also view the modules offered in the years: 2018–19; 2020–21.

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Year 1 Modules

Compulsory Modules

Semester 1

  • OSX-1000: Science Skills Tutorial (20)
    This module is designed to introduce a range of skills required for a marine science degree and to encourage wider reading in marine science. It involves directed reading and the practice in oral and written presentations. Regular tutorials (7 to 10 students per group) will be held throughout the year during which essay writing skills, oral presentation skills and abstracting information from the scientific literature will be discussed. The module will be assessed by two essay assignments, two oral presentations and an abstracting exercise to be done during the semester.
    or
    OSC-1000: Tiwtorial Sgiliau Gwyddoniaeth (20)
  • ONS-1001: Environmental data & analysis (20)
    This module, unlike most others, concentrates on giving the student the basic literature searching, numerical and statistical skills required for pursuing the rest of their respective programmes of study. The course relies heavily on computer-based material and so the student also learns how to use and evaluate on-line information, as well as how to converse, discuss and learn via the Blackboard software package. The course starts with an introduction to the Information Literacy Cycle, issues of plagiarism and how to avoid it, and good practice for citing and referencing. Thereafter, the course concentrates on key aspects of any science degree. Lectures introduced include: distributions of populations within scientific data; ideas of probability; unit systems used within science; accuracy and precision; algebraic manipulation; graphing linear systems; and coping with non-linearity in natural systems. Included as part of this will be an introduction to the use of excel and powerpoint - two software packages which are almost essential in the life of an undergraduate student. Following these mainly numerically-related lectures, the module focuses on the scientific method, hypothesis setting and testing; these leading to the fundamental ideas concerning experimental design. These concepts then extend to discussing the importance of replication in scientific datasets. Finally, an introduction to specific statistical tests (parametric and non-parametric) is presented. Library searching and referencing Introduction to distributions within scientific data Ideas of probability Description of distributions Preamble to MS Excel On-line exercises Presentation with MS Powerpoint Unit systems used in science Accuracy & precision. How many decimal places? Introduction to algebraic manipulation Graphing of linear systems Coping with non-linearity in nature (logs etc.) The scientific method: hypothesis setting and testing Introduction to experimental design The importance of replication in scientific datasets Examples of statistical tests: parametric versus non-parametric Regression and correlation ANOVA
    or
    ONC-1001: Dadansoddi Data Amgylcheddol (20)
    Mae'r modiwl hwn, yn wahanol i'r rhan fwyaf o fodiwlau eraill, yn canolbwyntio ar roi i'r myfyrwyr y sgiliau chwilio, rhifyddol ac ystadegol sylfaenol sydd eu hangen i ddilyn gweddill eu rhaglenni astudio. Mae'r cwrs yn dibynnu'n drwm ar ddeunydd cyfrifiadurol ac felly mae'r myfyriwr yn dysgu hefyd sut i ddefnyddio a gwerthuso gwybodaeth ar-lein yn ogystal â sut i sgwrsio, trafod a dysgu trwy gyfrwng pecyn meddalwedd Blackboard. Mae'r cwrs yn dechrau gyda chyflwyniad byr i system gyfrifiadurol y Brifysgol ( yn ystod yr Wythnos Groeso) ac yna'n symud ymlaen yn yr wythnos gyntaf i drafod rôl llenyddiaeth a thechnegau chwilio llenyddiaeth yn eu hastudiaethau yn y dyfodol. Ar ôl hynny, mae'r cwrs yn canolbwyntio ar agweddau allweddol unrhyw radd gwyddoniaeth. Mae'r darlithoedd a gyflwynir yn cynnwys: dosbarthiadau poblogaethau o fewn data gwyddonol; cysyniadau tebygolrwydd; systemau unedau a ddefnyddir mewn gwyddoniaeth; manwl gywirdeb; cyfrifiadau algebraig; rhyngberthnasau trigonometrig; gosod systemau llinol ar ffurf graff; ac ymdopi ag anflinoledd mewn systemau naturiol. Fel rhan o hyn ceir cyflwyniad i'r defnydd o Excel a Powerpoint - dau becyn meddalwedd sydd yn hanfodol bwysig i fywyd myfyriwr israddedig. Yn dilyn y darlithoedd hyn sydd yn ymwneud yn bennaf â rhifyddeg, mae'r modiwl yn canolbwyntio ar y dull gwyddonol, pennu a phrofi damcaniaethau; gan arwain at syniadau sylfaenol ynghylch cynllunio arbrofol. Yna mae'r cysyniadau hyn yn ymestyn i drafod pwysigrwydd dyblygu mewn setiau data gwyddonol. Yn olaf rhoddir cyflwyniad i brofion ystadegol penodol (parametrig ac anbarametrig). Llythrennedd gwybodaeth Gosod systemau llinol ar ffurf graff MS Excel Systemau unedau a ddefnyddir mewn gwyddoniaeth Manwl gywirdeb Cyflwyniad i ddosbarthiadau o fewn data gwyddonol Disgrifiad o ddosbarthiadau Cysyniadau tebygolrwydd Y dull gwyddonol: pennu a phrofi damcaniaethau Cyflwyniad gyda MS Powerpoint Cyflwyniad i gyfrifiadau algebraig Rhyngberthnasau trigonometrig Ymdopi ag aflinoledd ym myd natur; Cyflwyniad i ddylunio arbrofol Pwysigrwydd dyblygu mewn setiau data gwyddonol Enghreifftiau o brofion ystadegol; parametrig vs amharametrig Atchweliad a chydberthyniad Cyfraddau newid: gwahaniaethu Cyflwyniad i ddadansoddiad amlamrywedd
  • DXX-1005: Earth Systems and Processes (20)
    Key module topics will include: 1. Earth systems and earth processes: introduction and key concepts 2. The Geosphere: key geological concepts and processes. 3. Weathering processes 4. The atmosphere: global and regional atmospheric circulation 5. Atmosphere-Ocean interaction: influence on climate, ENSO & NAO cycles & cyclones 6. The hydrosphere: introduction to the hydrological cycle, run-off generation & basic principles of hydrology. 7. Glacial environments: introduction to ice-mass description, ice mass movement and glacial geomorphology. 8. The biosphere: introduction to soils 9. The biosphere: introduction to biogeography 10. Introduction to global biogeochemical cycles: the Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles.
  • OSX-1005: Fundamentals of Oceanography (20)
    Provide a conceptual model of the physical systems of the oceans. Introduce the basic dynamical balances that govern ocean circulation. Demonstrate the links between ocean circulation and climate. Examine the influence of biological activity and ocean circulation on ocean chemistry. Understand the elements are continuously recycled in the oceans. Gain experience and skills in laboratory techniques relevant to an understanding of ocean chemistry. Gain experience and skills in laboratory techniques relevant to the flow of water, waves and density currents and basic dynamics.

Semester 2

  • OSX-1000: Science Skills Tutorial
    This module is designed to introduce a range of skills required for a marine science degree and to encourage wider reading in marine science. It involves directed reading and the practice in oral and written presentations. Regular tutorials (7 to 10 students per group) will be held throughout the year during which essay writing skills, oral presentation skills and abstracting information from the scientific literature will be discussed. The module will be assessed by two essay assignments, two oral presentations and an abstracting exercise to be done during the semester.
    or
    OSC-1000: Tiwtorial Sgiliau Gwyddoniaeth
  • ONS-1001: Environmental data & analysis
    This module, unlike most others, concentrates on giving the student the basic literature searching, numerical and statistical skills required for pursuing the rest of their respective programmes of study. The course relies heavily on computer-based material and so the student also learns how to use and evaluate on-line information, as well as how to converse, discuss and learn via the Blackboard software package. The course starts with an introduction to the Information Literacy Cycle, issues of plagiarism and how to avoid it, and good practice for citing and referencing. Thereafter, the course concentrates on key aspects of any science degree. Lectures introduced include: distributions of populations within scientific data; ideas of probability; unit systems used within science; accuracy and precision; algebraic manipulation; graphing linear systems; and coping with non-linearity in natural systems. Included as part of this will be an introduction to the use of excel and powerpoint - two software packages which are almost essential in the life of an undergraduate student. Following these mainly numerically-related lectures, the module focuses on the scientific method, hypothesis setting and testing; these leading to the fundamental ideas concerning experimental design. These concepts then extend to discussing the importance of replication in scientific datasets. Finally, an introduction to specific statistical tests (parametric and non-parametric) is presented. Library searching and referencing Introduction to distributions within scientific data Ideas of probability Description of distributions Preamble to MS Excel On-line exercises Presentation with MS Powerpoint Unit systems used in science Accuracy & precision. How many decimal places? Introduction to algebraic manipulation Graphing of linear systems Coping with non-linearity in nature (logs etc.) The scientific method: hypothesis setting and testing Introduction to experimental design The importance of replication in scientific datasets Examples of statistical tests: parametric versus non-parametric Regression and correlation ANOVA
    or
    ONC-1001: Dadansoddi Data Amgylcheddol
    Mae'r modiwl hwn, yn wahanol i'r rhan fwyaf o fodiwlau eraill, yn canolbwyntio ar roi i'r myfyrwyr y sgiliau chwilio, rhifyddol ac ystadegol sylfaenol sydd eu hangen i ddilyn gweddill eu rhaglenni astudio. Mae'r cwrs yn dibynnu'n drwm ar ddeunydd cyfrifiadurol ac felly mae'r myfyriwr yn dysgu hefyd sut i ddefnyddio a gwerthuso gwybodaeth ar-lein yn ogystal â sut i sgwrsio, trafod a dysgu trwy gyfrwng pecyn meddalwedd Blackboard. Mae'r cwrs yn dechrau gyda chyflwyniad byr i system gyfrifiadurol y Brifysgol ( yn ystod yr Wythnos Groeso) ac yna'n symud ymlaen yn yr wythnos gyntaf i drafod rôl llenyddiaeth a thechnegau chwilio llenyddiaeth yn eu hastudiaethau yn y dyfodol. Ar ôl hynny, mae'r cwrs yn canolbwyntio ar agweddau allweddol unrhyw radd gwyddoniaeth. Mae'r darlithoedd a gyflwynir yn cynnwys: dosbarthiadau poblogaethau o fewn data gwyddonol; cysyniadau tebygolrwydd; systemau unedau a ddefnyddir mewn gwyddoniaeth; manwl gywirdeb; cyfrifiadau algebraig; rhyngberthnasau trigonometrig; gosod systemau llinol ar ffurf graff; ac ymdopi ag anflinoledd mewn systemau naturiol. Fel rhan o hyn ceir cyflwyniad i'r defnydd o Excel a Powerpoint - dau becyn meddalwedd sydd yn hanfodol bwysig i fywyd myfyriwr israddedig. Yn dilyn y darlithoedd hyn sydd yn ymwneud yn bennaf â rhifyddeg, mae'r modiwl yn canolbwyntio ar y dull gwyddonol, pennu a phrofi damcaniaethau; gan arwain at syniadau sylfaenol ynghylch cynllunio arbrofol. Yna mae'r cysyniadau hyn yn ymestyn i drafod pwysigrwydd dyblygu mewn setiau data gwyddonol. Yn olaf rhoddir cyflwyniad i brofion ystadegol penodol (parametrig ac anbarametrig). Llythrennedd gwybodaeth Gosod systemau llinol ar ffurf graff MS Excel Systemau unedau a ddefnyddir mewn gwyddoniaeth Manwl gywirdeb Cyflwyniad i ddosbarthiadau o fewn data gwyddonol Disgrifiad o ddosbarthiadau Cysyniadau tebygolrwydd Y dull gwyddonol: pennu a phrofi damcaniaethau Cyflwyniad gyda MS Powerpoint Cyflwyniad i gyfrifiadau algebraig Rhyngberthnasau trigonometrig Ymdopi ag aflinoledd ym myd natur; Cyflwyniad i ddylunio arbrofol Pwysigrwydd dyblygu mewn setiau data gwyddonol Enghreifftiau o brofion ystadegol; parametrig vs amharametrig Atchweliad a chydberthyniad Cyfraddau newid: gwahaniaethu Cyflwyniad i ddadansoddiad amlamrywedd
  • OSX-1003: Earth, Climate & Evolution (20)
    An exploration of environmental change, including climate change, and its impacts on biological evolution on geological time scales. This includes an introduction to the geological tools and techniques used to decipher and interpret the geological and fossil records. It examines how the earth works: tectonics, climate, the sedimentary cycle, sea level change. The climate system (inputs, budgets), climate change (external forcings, feedback), global cooling and warming. Major events in earth history: e.g. its origin, the origin of life, evolution of bacteria and multicellular organisms, significant biological changes from the late Precambrian to the Quaternary, major climate and eustatic events in geological history, etc. There is emphasis on Quaternary changes - climatic cycles and anthropogenic impacts - since these still resonate in the present day environment. Global climate modelling including hindcasting and prediction.
  • OSX-1005: Fundamentals of Oceanography
    Provide a conceptual model of the physical systems of the oceans. Introduce the basic dynamical balances that govern ocean circulation. Demonstrate the links between ocean circulation and climate. Examine the influence of biological activity and ocean circulation on ocean chemistry. Understand the elements are continuously recycled in the oceans. Gain experience and skills in laboratory techniques relevant to an understanding of ocean chemistry. Gain experience and skills in laboratory techniques relevant to the flow of water, waves and density currents and basic dynamics.

Optional Modules

20 credits from:

  • BNS-1002: Organismal Diversity (20) (Semester 1)
    All major groups of living organisms will be reviewed, from viruses, bacteria, protists, fungi and higher plants to invertebrate and vertebrate animals. General taxonomy, body form, physiology and life history will be studied to give an appreciation of the multiple aspects of biodiversity.
  • DXX-1002: Env. Management & Conservation (20) (Semester 1)
    Introduction to environmental management and conservation (why is it important, who does it and where does it occur). The concepts of landscape multipurpose land-use, interpretation and evaluation. Environmental ethics, conflicts and rights. Introduction to Marine conservation issues and to Agri-environment schemes. There will be a field trip to view examples of conflicts between conservation and other land uses. Methods to assess impacts on the environment (e.g. carbon footprints, environmental impact assessment). There will be a field trip to see how the impacts of large industrial projects are being managed and reduced. Economics and the environment: what’s the relationship? The economic problem and the importance of economics. How individual decisions add up to form social phenomena. Fundamentals of economic analysis. Markets, market failures and interventions. Institutions , incentives and interventions by governments. Growth and trade. Using economic analysis to understand the world and inform decisions. There will be a field trip to illustrate economic issues in the environment.
  • FXX-1005: Chem. in Biol. and Environ. (10) (Semester 2)
    Pre-requisites GCSE Chemistry or FXX0010 preferred or equivalent qualifications. This course comprises of three main topics: (6 lectures) Light and Colour Covering aspects of the properties of coloured, fluorescent and chemi-luminescent molecules, their distribution in nature and their reactions. (6 hourlectures) Bio-active Molecules An introduction to biologically active compounds: including carbohydrates, lipids, nitrogen containing compounds and selected plant secondary metabolites and pharmaceuticals. (12 lectures) Chemistry in the Environment This series of lectures will focus on the clean environment and examination of some of the changes caused by chemical pollution. The course will be split into the atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere and will include case studies of important environmental issues (for instance, global warming, eutrophication and nuclear waste). Examples will also be shown of how chemistry can be used to solve environmental problems. Course Team: Dr L Murphy (6 lectures), Dr I Butler (12 lectures), Dr H Tai (6 lectures). RESOURCE IMPLICATIONS ESSENTIAL READING - None RECOMMENDED READING 1. "Environmental Chemistry", 6th Ed., S E Manahan, (Lewis Publishers, 1994) SPECIFIC RESOURCE IMPLICATIONS FOR STUDENTS - None
  • OSX-1006: Anglesey Geology Field Course (10) (Semester 2)
  • OSX-1007: Marine Biogeochemistry (10) (Semester 1)

Year 2 Modules

Compulsory Modules

Semester 1

  • OSX-2004: Estuary & Shelf Sea Processes (20)
    This course introduces the fundamental processes occurring in shelf seas and estuaries and examines the relationship between physics, chemistry and sediments. Topics covered include: air-sea interaction (heat, gases etc) water column structure: seasonal stratification and mixing inputs of fresh water at the coast and estuarine circulation movement of sediments in shelf seas and estuaries nutrients and chemical origin, cycling and fate in shelf sea palaeo-oceanography of shelf seas The course is taught through lectures, laboratory and computer practicals and a field course.
  • OSX-2007: Ship-based field course (20)
    This module provides experience of multidisciplinary fieldwork at sea. A wide range of oceanographic and geophysical instrumentation is introduced including instruments for measuring salinity, temperature, currents, chlorophyll, suspended and sea bed sediments. These include CTD, optical instruments (transmissometer, fluorometer), geoacoustic instruments (Side scan sonar, Sub-bottom profiler), and instruments for measuring current (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler). In addition sampling of plankton, suspended and seabed sediments will be covered. Students spend one full day at sea on the Prince Madog collecting data using on-board instrumentation and collecting samples from the water column and sea bed. These are combined with data collected by students on other days (at least 9 in total, depending on numbers taking module) to produce an extensive data base. This is used to produce a data analysis report, and research report/paper the topic of which can be tailored to suit an individual student's interests.

Semester 2

  • OSX-2000: Communicating Science (20)
    Topics covered will be very wide ranging across Ocean Sciences. Individual staff each provide an area of interest. Students choose a general area of interest and are, where possible, matched to the tutorial group of the appropriate member of staff. Tutorial groups will be of approximately equal size.
    or
    OSC-2000: Cyfathrebu Gwyddoniaeth (20)
  • OSX-2005: Remote Sensing & Geophysics (20)
    Geodesy - Shape of the Earth - The Geoid - Datums - Co-ordinate systems and transformations - Projections Position fixing systems - GPS - Galileo and Glonass - Underwater positioning systems Remote sensing - Introduction - Remote sensing systems - Corrections applied to the data - Processing of remote sensing data - Applications of instrumentation Acoustic methods - Acoustic theory - Acoustic instrumentation and survey techniques - Applications of seafloor mapping
  • OSX-2007: Ship-based field course
    This module provides experience of multidisciplinary fieldwork at sea. A wide range of oceanographic and geophysical instrumentation is introduced including instruments for measuring salinity, temperature, currents, chlorophyll, suspended and sea bed sediments. These include CTD, optical instruments (transmissometer, fluorometer), geoacoustic instruments (Side scan sonar, Sub-bottom profiler), and instruments for measuring current (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler). In addition sampling of plankton, suspended and seabed sediments will be covered. Students spend one full day at sea on the Prince Madog collecting data using on-board instrumentation and collecting samples from the water column and sea bed. These are combined with data collected by students on other days (at least 9 in total, depending on numbers taking module) to produce an extensive data base. This is used to produce a data analysis report, and research report/paper the topic of which can be tailored to suit an individual student's interests.

Optional Modules

20 to 40 credits from:

  • DXX-2001: Sustainable Development (20) (Semester 1 + 2)
    This module will look at sustainable development which is based on effective ways of protecting the environment, prudent use of natural resources, maintenance of stable and flourishing communities where everyone’s needs are met. Thus changing and contested discourses of power, community, distinctiveness of place and social progress will also be considered along side effective environmental planning and management methods. These entail specific examples of tools applied for working towards, managing and monitoring sustainability will be presented e.g. LCA, Eco Systems services and specific case studies where these have and are being applied will be utilised from real contrasting geographical areas. The module will draw on existing tourism-related initiatives at local, regional and national level and provide critical commentary on their relative effectiveness and lessons learnt relating to sustainability. In order to examine strategic economic activity within the scope of sustainability theoretical discussion of several contexts will be examined in detail e.g. Local Food Initiatives, Sustainable Tourism, Sustainable Agriculture. This will include the basic global principles of sustainable tourism and how these have been variously applied in different contexts through charters and protocols. The development of the concept of sustainability will be examined in a general introduction to the changing population, resource technological and development debate. The economic theories relating to the wise management of natural resource will be explored along with the notion of governance for sustainable development involving international actors e.g. TNC’s and Campaigning groups. Students will be afforded the opportunity to work alongside staff within small project teams (max size 5) on specific case study scenarios involving techniques currently used by local sustainability practitioners and individually in quantitative assessment. Some of these projects will involve community organisations local to North Wales. This will include consideration of the recently extended section of the Clwydian Range and Dee Valley Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty as a potential model approach to a sustainably managed protected area which emphasises high environmental quality and adding value and appreciation through integrated land use and activity management.
    or
    DXC-2001: Datblygiad Cynaliadwy (20) (Semester 1 + 2)
    Bydd y modiwl hwn yn edrych ar ddatblygiad cynaladwy sy'n seiliedig ar ffyrdd effeithiol o ddiogelu’r amgylchedd, defnyddio adnoddau naturiol yn gall, cynnal cymunedau sefydlog a ffyniannus lle bodlonir anghenion pawb. Ystyrir hefyd y syniadau, sy’n newid ac yn peri anghytundeb, am rym, cymuned, hynodrwydd lleoliad a chynnydd cymdeithasol ynghyd â chynllunio amgylcheddol a dulliau rheoli effeithiol. Cyflwynir hefyd enghreifftiau penodol o ardaloedd daearyddol cyferbyniol lle defnyddir arfau i weithio tuag at gynaladwyedd, rheoli cynaladwyedd a monitro cynaladwyedd, e.e. EIA, SEA, dadansoddi cost a budd ac astudiaethau achos penodol. Er mwyn ystyried gweithgarwch economaidd strategol yng nghwmpas cynaladwyedd, edrychir yn fanwl ar y drafodaeth ddamcaniaethol mewn sawl cyd-destun, e.e. trafnidiaeth gynaliadwy, twristiaeth gynaliadwy, amaethyddiaeth gynaliadwy, dyfodol ynni. Ystyrir datblygiad y cysyniad o gynaladwyedd mewn cyflwyniad cyffredinol i boblogaeth sy’n newid a’r ddadl ynglŷn â datblygu adnoddau technolegol. Ystyrir y theorïau economaidd sy’n ymwneud â rheoli adnoddau naturiol mewn dull doeth ynghyd â’r syniad o lywodraethu datblygiad cynaladwy sy’n cynnwys cyrff rhyngwladol, e.e. TNC a grwpiau ymgyrchu. Caiff myfyrwyr gyfle i weithio gyda staff mewn timau project bach (4 ar y mwyaf) ar senarios astudiaethau achos penodol yn cynnwys technegau a ddefnyddir ar hyn o bryd gan ymarferwyr cynaladwyedd lleol. Bydd rhai o’r projectau hyn yn cynnwys cyrff cymunedol lleol.
  • DXX-2002: Water, air & soil pollution (20) (Semester 1)
    1. Introduction to soil quality 2. Key concept: Soil water 3. Key concept: Nutrient cycling in ecosystems 4. Key concept: Soil biology and biodiversity 5. Key concept: Nutrient function and plant uptake 6. Key concept: The rhizosphere 7. Key concept: Mycorrhizas and N2 fixation 8. Global problems I: Soil salinity 9. Global problems II: Soil acidity 10. Global problems III: Human and animal pathogens 11. Global problems IV: Organic pollutants 12. Global problems V: Food security (inc. pests and fertilizers) 13. Global problems VI: Soil erosion 14. Global problems VII: Water use and conservation 15. Global problems VIII: Heavy metals 16. Introduction to air quality 17. Global problems III: Volcanic/Particulate matter (PM10s etc) 18. Global problems IV: Radon 19. Introduction to water quality 20. Global problems I: Eutrophication 21. Global problems II: Sewage and waterborne diseases 22. Global problems III: Pesticides and pollutants
  • DXX-2006: Climate Change (20) (Semester 1)
    1. Major concepts; climate and environmental change and `global warming¿. 2. Temporal and spatial patterns of historical climate change. Major glacial/interglacial cycles, Quaternary climate change (Last Glacial Maximum, Younger Dryas Hypsithermal, Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age). Potential contributing factors (orbital forcing, sunspot activity). Hemispheric differences in climate variation. 3. Use of environmental proxies. The course will cover the use of a range of environmental proxies for reconstructing past climate at a range of temporal and spatial scales. This will include the use of dendrochronological records, palaeo-atmospheric chemistry (ice-cores), speleotherms, varved sedimentary deposits, documentary records, primary climate observations. 4. Environmental and human impacts of climate change. Focusing on both historical and contemporary issues: megafaunal extinctions, population stress in the LIA, drought in sub-Saharan Africa. 5. The contemporary climate change debate. Depiction in the popular media, causes, magnitude. Evidence presented in the peer-reviewed, scientific literature. 6. Future predictions of climate change. IPCC, GCMs. 7. Adaption to climate change. Focus on both attempts to address potential causes (CO2 and `greenhouse gas¿ releases, Kyoto Protocol, Copenhagen Summit, carbon capture, renewable energy, energy efficiency, carbon credits, offsetting) and impacts (impacts of climatic change upon weather and the environment, changing frequency and magnitude of extreme events). 8. Socio-economic impacts of climate change.
  • OSX-2006: Tides, Waves and Marine Energy (20) (Semester 1)
    Chemical oceanography: The methods associated with measuring primary production and the collection of dissolved and particulate constituents will be presented along with the advantages and disadvantages of each particular methodology. Physical oceanography: Topics relating to the tides will be the speed of shallow water waves, the effect of wave reflection and the Earth's rotation, amphidromic systems, tidal friction, and an explanation of the tides around the UK. Topics related to surface waves will be wave generation by wind/storms, the propagation of wave energy in deep and shallow water, wave transformation and refraction in coastal waters, wave diffraction, wave breaking and the classification of breaking waves, breakpoint bars on beaches.
  • OSX-2009: Marine Ecology (20) (Semester 1)
    Topics covered will include: rocky shore ecology, keystone species, physical and biological factors, zonation, disturbance, succession, macro-algal production. Soft sediment ecology, saltmarsh, seagrasses, mangal, tropical and temperate soft sediment shores. Sub-tidal hard substrate ecology, temperate reefs, physical and biological factors, community structure, exposure. Coral reef ecology, types and formation, algal symbiosis, biodiversity and productivity, community structure, development and change, processes leading to stable communities.

0 to 20 credits from:

  • DXX-2011: Catchment Processes (20) (Semester 2)
    This module will provide a management-oriented understanding of the factors influencing the quality and quantity of soil and water resources. The hydrological cycle and water balance in catchments; rainfall/runoff relationships; catchment characteristics; catchment structure ¿ hillslope, channel & floodplain domains; sedimentation; the role of vegetation and land-use changes in catchment stability, hydrological processes and soil erosion; water quality; temperate and tropical catchment results and case studies; degrading processes in catchments; legislation and the Water Framework Directive.

Year 3 Modules

Compulsory Modules

Semester 1

  • OSX-3007: Coastal Processes Field Study (20)
    THIS MODULE INVOLVES A 10-DAY RESIDENTIAL FIELD TRIP TO SOUTH WALES IN JUNE AT THE END OF YOUR SECOND YEAR. The principal component of this double module is a residential field course in the Carmarthen Bay area which takes place in June (after completion of Year 2). The field course is centred on a macrotidal estuary and adjacent coastal barrier and it is designed to teach students the essentials of field techniques in shallow water oceanography and intertidal geophysics and micropalaeontology. Students gain practical experience of measurements of estuarine and foreshore dynamics, sediment transport, surficial sediment thickness and structure, foraminifera ecology, and Quaternary stratigraphy. They gain experience of data collection from small boats. Most of the work is done in teams of 2-3, some in teams of up to 8, students. All of the data collection requires team effort. The acquired dataset enables students to test hypotheses and synthesise processes on time scales of 10(-2) to 10(3) years, and to produce an integrated model of Holocene coastal evolution. There is an associated practical in Menai Bridge. There is a fee of £150 for the 10-day field course.

Semester 2

  • OSX-3000: Dissertation (20)
    The students' initial choice of dissertation topic will be organised prior to the start of the module and the topics covered will be very wide ranging across the whole spectrum of Ocean Sciences. An introductory lecture will outline the academic purpose and the organisational structure of the Module and will remind students of literature searching methods, and strategies for collation, review and analysis of data. Following this, students will work independently but with the support of a supervisor who will generally be cognisant of, and may often be an expert in, the area of the students' dissertation topic. There will be three formal tutorials during the semester and a second general lecture that will offer advice on oral presentations. Each student will give a short oral presentation to a large audience in a Conference-style format and will be required to be part of that audience for other students. A final substantial (approximately 10,000 words, 25 pages) dissertation will be submitted electronically through TURNITIN (plagiarism software) and as two soft-bound copies for assessment.
  • DXX-3018: Rivers, Coast and Oceans (20)

Optional Modules

40 credits from:

  • DXX-3001: Environmental Geochemistry (10) (Semester 1)
    1. Context and major concepts: key terminology, introduction to the primary environment and natural elemental abundance, importance of mineralization. 2. Introduction to the secondary environment. Geochemical behaviour in the secondary environment, cations and valency, processes of sorption, importance of pH and Eh. 3. Human activities as sources of metals to the environment: mining, smelting, petrol combustion, waste incineration, use of sewage sludge. 4. Natural release of metals to the environment: processes of physical, biological and chemical weathering, volcanic activity, determining `background' metal concentrations. 5. Processes of contaminant metal dispersal within the secondary environment. 6. Mapping of environmental geochemistry and the use of geochemical maps. 7. Geochemistry and human health: toxicity and deficiency. 8. The development, application and relevance of environmental legislation: e.g. EU WFD.
  • OSX-3005: Coastal Water Processes (20) (Semester 1)
    The course of 16 lectures is designed to give a systematic understanding of key aspects of chemical and physical oceanography of coastal waters. The physical component of the course develops ideas you will have come across in the second year about stratification and vertical mixing in shelf seas and oceans. You will be introduced to the idea of making forecasts about the ocean using computer software and models. You will learn how to make predictions about the coastal ocean changes with the seasons. You will learn how to extend yor predictions to suspended sediments, nutrients and primary productivity in the oceans. The chemical component of the module examines in detail the biogeochemical processes controlling the concentration and distribution of biologically important elements in the water column and underlying sediments. The module material will contribute to your understanding of the temporal and spatial variation in element concentrations related to organic matter production and destruction and how both the physics of the water column and mans' activities can impact on their distribution.
  • OSX-3025: Marine Geology & Applications (20) (Semester 1)
  • DXX-3506: C. Issues in Env & related Sci (10) (Semester 1)
    This module allows the student to undertake a desk-based research project looking in depth at a current environmental or related issue. The module runs in Semester 1 and culminates in the production of a written project report and a seminar. The issues are chosen by the student to reflect his/her interests and can range from local issues through to global issues. The range of 'popular' current issues will be investigated by individual students. Sources such as tabloid and broadsheet daily and Sunday newspapers, broadcast media, the internet, 'popular' scientific journals and the more rigorously refereed scientific journals should be consulted. The topic should be different from that chosen in the student's experimental research project. Topics should be selected in consultation with the module organizer. The module involves student-led research into a specific topic. Apart from an introductory lecture there are no formal lectures or practicals associated with this module. At the end of Semester 1, each student will present their topic in the form of a 20 minute interview and will submit a project report on their chosen topic. Both the interview and project report elements will be assessed.
    or
    DXC-3506: Materion Cyfoes yr Amgylchedd (10) (Semester 1)
    Bydd y modiwl hwn yn galluogi myfyrwyr i wneud project ymchwil ar gyfrifiadur gan edrych yn fanwl ar fater amgylcheddol cyfredol, neu fater yn gysylltiedig â'r amgylchedd. Cynhelir y modiwl yn Semester 1 a daw i ben gyda chynhyrchu adroddiad project ysgrifenedig a seminar. Dewisir y testunau gan y myfyriwr i adlewyrchu ei d(d)iddordeb a gallant amrywio o faterion lleol i rai byd-eang. Bydd myfyrwyr yn ymchwilio i amrediad o faterion cyfoes 'poblogaidd'. Dylid ymgynghori â ffynonellau megis papurau newydd o wahanol ansawdd, y cyfryngau darlledu, y rhyngrwyd, cyfnodolion gwyddonol `poblogaidd' a'r cyfnodolion gwyddonol a gaiff eu cloriannu'n fwy trwyadl gan arbenigwyr yn y maes. Dylai'r testun fod yn wahanol i'r un a ddewisir ar gyfer project ymchwil arbrofol y myfyriwr. Dylid dewis testunau mewn ymgynghoriad â threfnydd y modiwl. Mae'r modiwl yn cynnwys ymchwil a wneir gan fyfyrwyr i destun penodol. Ar wahân i ddarlith ragarweiniol nid oes unrhyw ddarlithoedd neu sesiynau ymarferol ffurfiol yn gysylltiedig â'r modiwl hwn. Ar ddiwedd Semester 1 bydd pob myfyriwr yn cyflwyno eu testun ar ffurf seminar 20 munud a byddant yn cyflwyno adroddiad project ar y testun o'u dewis. Bydd myfyrwyr yn mynd i seminarau ei gilydd a disgwylir iddynt gyfrannu at y drafodaeth ar ôl pob sgwrs. Asesir y seminar a'r adroddiad project.
  • DXX-3508: Environmental Issues (20) (Semester 1)
    This module allows the student to undertake a desk-based research project looking in depth at a current environmental or related issue. The module runs in Semester 1 and culminates in the production of a written project report and interview. The issues are chosen by the student to reflect his/her interests and can range from local issues through to global issues. The range of `popular' current issues will be investigated by individual students. Sources such as tabloid and broadsheet daily and Sunday newspapers, broadcast media, the internet, `popular' scientific journals and the more rigorously refereed scientific journals should be consulted. The topic should be different from that chosen in the student's experimental research project. Topics should be selected in consultation with the module organizer. The module involves student-led research into a specific topic. Apart from two introductory lectures there are no formal lectures or practicals associated with this module. At the end of Semester 1, each student will present their topic in the form of a 20 minute interview and will submit a project report on their chosen topic. Both the interview and project report elements will be assessed.
    or
    DXC-3508: Materion Amgylcheddol (20) (Semester 1)
    Bydd y modiwl hwn yn galluogi myfyrwyr i wneud project ymchwil ar gyfrifiadur gan edrych yn fanwl ar fater amgylcheddol cyfredol, neu fater yn gysylltiedig â'r amgylchedd. Cynhelir y modiwl yn Semester 1 a daw i ben gyda chynhyrchu adroddiad project ysgrifenedig a seminar. Dewisir y testunau gan y myfyriwr i adlewyrchu ei d(d)iddordeb a gallant amrywio o faterion lleol i rai byd-eang. Bydd myfyrwyr yn ymchwilio i amrediad o faterion cyfoes 'poblogaidd'. Dylid ymgynghori â ffynonellau megis papurau newydd o wahanol ansawdd, y cyfryngau darlledu, y rhyngrwyd, cyfnodolion gwyddonol `poblogaidd' a'r cyfnodolion gwyddonol a gaiff eu cloriannu'n fwy trwyadl gan arbenigwyr yn y maes. Dylai'r testun fod yn wahanol i'r un a ddewisir ar gyfer project ymchwil arbrofol y myfyriwr. Dylid dewis testunau mewn ymgynghoriad â threfnydd y modiwl. Mae'r modiwl yn cynnwys ymchwil a wneir gan fyfyrwyr i destun penodol. Ar wahân i ddarlith ragarweiniol nid oes unrhyw ddarlithoedd neu sesiynau ymarferol ffurfiol yn gysylltiedig â'r modiwl hwn. Ar ddiwedd Semester 1 bydd pob myfyriwr yn cyflwyno eu testun ar ffurf seminar 20 munud a byddant yn cyflwyno adroddiad project ar y testun o'u dewis. Bydd myfyrwyr yn mynd i seminarau ei gilydd a disgwylir iddynt gyfrannu at y drafodaeth ar ôl pob sgwrs. Asesir y seminar a¿r adroddiad project.
  • DXX-3615: Environmental Policy (10) (Semester 1)
    Policy and the environment Basic concepts of government, sovereignty, politics, democracy. General features of political systems and governments in the UK and internationally. The role of diverse actors in the policy process: including politicians and parliaments, governments, bureaucracies and agencies, NGOs, media, interest groups and supranational bodies. Theories of politics and policy-making, including international relations.
  • Semester 1 options. Choose 40 credits. NOTE: DXX3506 & DXX3508 cannot be taken togther

20 credits from:

  • OSX-3001: Marine Conservation & Exploit. (20) (Semester 2)
    The course will address methods of natural resource assessment, and techniques and tools for protection and management of living marine resource exploitation. Marine biological diversity will be defined, and impacts and threats assessed, identifying the need to protect species, ecological processes and critical habitats. The limits of environmental degradation and rehabilitation will be explored. Conservation methods developed for terrestrial diversity do not extend into the marine environment, and differences in approach will be considered. The effectiveness of tools such as zoning, legislation, environmental impact assessment, and Marine Protected Areas will be assessed. Sustainable development and integrated coastal zone management will be introduced, and case studies from around the world will be used to illustrate successes and failures of biological conservation. The course will deal with the over-exploitation of marine biological resources with a global overview and case studies of fisheries at the single species and ecosystem levels. The historical development of fisheries exploitation will be linked to technological advances made over the last 80 000 years. Approaches to management of fisheries will be evaluated. Aquaculture will be introduced as an alternative means of seafood production, criteria for selection of species will be considered, including biological characteristics, growth, reproduction, larval culture, yields and economics. Principles and culture practices for the major farmed groups will be reviewed and a range of species and characteristics of production systems from extensive to highly intensive will be compared, together with alternative approaches to increasing production such as stock enhancement. Environmental impacts, constraints on development and sustainability of aquaculture will be discussed
  • OSX-3002: Marine Ecosystems & Processes (20) (Semester 2)
    The module takes as an over-arching theme the concepts of ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services. It commences with 5 introductory lectures that illustrate the factors that underpin ecosystem functioning, as well as factors that can cause ecosystems to change. The key corner-stones that underpin ecosystem processes are detailed. A particular focus is made on exploring the role of biodiversity in maintaining ecosystem functions and services. Drivers of ecosystem change and resistance to change are considered, in the contexts of ecosystem resilience, system vulnerability and ecosystem regime-shifts. The role of biodiversity in maintaining resilience in marine systems is examined. Factors that determine secondary production of systems are considered, with particular focus on zooplankton, marine benthos and fish. The practical shapes of ecosystem functioning, services, resilience and vulnerability are then illustrated by a series of lectures that consider the biology, ecology and conservational status of key ecosystems in detail. Systems for which particular focus is made are: estuaries, mangroves, coastal shelf seas, pelagic systems, deep sea benthos and deep sea mounts. The module also has emphasis on reviewing the influences of some of the most important current drivers of change in marine ecosystems (‘Global Impacts’). Six dedicated lectures examine the effects of invasive species, ocean acidification, climate change, benthic exploration and fisheries disturbance on the functioning of marine ecosystems. The course includes a marked course-work component. A three-session practical focuses on examining the value that society is willing to place on conserving marine biodiversity. In the first session, students are asked to design a Contingent Valuation Questionnaire which to test for society’s Willingness to Pay for biodiversity conservation. Students are then asked to collect their data, by taking their questionnaire to the wider student population within Bangor University. In the second session, the results are analysed and a group presentation is drafted. In the third sessions, groups give their presentations. Students individually produce a poster for assessment. Marks are given for the group presentation and for the student poster.
  • Semester 2 options. Choose 20 credits.