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Module MSE-2006:
Clinical Physiology

Module Facts

Run by School of Medical Sciences

20 Credits or 10 ECTS Credits

Semester 1 & 2

Organiser: Dr Dylan Jones

Overall aims and purpose

This module aims to expand the students’ knowledge of normal/abnormal physiology. The homeostatic and auto-immunity themes will be used through-out with the student gaining insight into normal and dysfunctional aspects of multiple body systems.

Course content

This module aims to cover several key concepts of normal and abnormal physiology:

  • How structural change can contribute to disease.
  • The role of homeostatic alterations in disease.
  • Key roles of the immunologic and haematological systems in health and disease.

Over the course of two semesters, students will attend lectures which examine abnormal physiologies of most of the major physiological systems in the human body. The module will contain recent developments within the field of clinical physiology and address the role genetics and inheritance have in causing common pathologies.

Learning outcomes mapped to assessment criteria

  threshold

Threshold D- to D+ (40 – 49%) Basic factual information largely based on teaching notes, generally accurate but with some errors or gaps.

good

Satisfactory C- to C+ (50 – 59%) Reasonably comprehensive coverage, indicating generally accurate understanding, based on lecture material and some core readings.

Good B- to B+ (60 – 69%) Comprehensive and accurate coverage, showing good use of teaching material and core readings. Is able to demonstrate good knowledge of human physiology and the structures that make up the body.

excellent

Excellent
A- to A* (70 -100%) Has sophisticated knowledge of human physiology and the structures that make up the body. Very comprehensive and accurate coverage, indicating that the student has gone beyond the core readings and explored the topic in depth.

Explain physiology at the individual organ and system level and the integration between body systems.

Excellent A- to A* (70 -100%) Has sophisticated knowledge of human physiology and the structures that make up the body. Very comprehensive and accurate coverage, indicating that the student has gone beyond the core readings and explored the topic in depth. Threshold D- to D+ (40 – 49%) Basic factual information largely based on teaching notes, generally accurate but with some errors or gaps. Satisfactory C- to C+ (50 – 59%) Reasonably comprehensive coverage, indicating generally accurate understanding, based on lecture material and some core readings. Good B- to B+ (60 – 69%) Comprehensive and accurate coverage, showing good use of teaching material and core readings. Is able to demonstrate good knowledge of human physiology and the structures that make up the body.

Explain how alterations to normal body systems can contribute to disease

Threshold D- to D+ (40 – 49%) Basic factual information largely based on teaching notes, generally accurate but with some errors or gaps. Satisfactory C- to C+ (50 – 59%) Reasonably comprehensive coverage, indicating generally accurate understanding, based on lecture material and some core readings. Good B- to B+ (60 – 69%) Comprehensive and accurate coverage, showing good use of teaching material and core readings. Is able to demonstrate good knowledge of human physiology and the structures that make up the body. Excellent A- to A* (70 -100%) Has sophisticated knowledge of human physiology and the structures that make up the body. Very comprehensive and accurate coverage, indicating that the student has gone beyond the core readings and explored the topic in depth.

Demonstrate an understanding of environmental, societal and genetic factors which can influence disease

Threshold D- to D+ (40 – 49%) Basic factual information largely based on teaching notes, generally accurate but with some errors or gaps. Satisfactory C- to C+ (50 – 59%) Reasonably comprehensive coverage, indicating generally accurate understanding, based on lecture material and some core readings. Good B- to B+ (60 – 69%) Comprehensive and accurate coverage, showing good use of teaching material and core readings. Is able to demonstrate good knowledge of human physiology and the structures that make up the body. Excellent A- to A* (70 -100%) Has sophisticated knowledge of human physiology and the structures that make up the body. Very comprehensive and accurate coverage, indicating that the student has gone beyond the core readings and explored the topic in depth.

Assessment Methods

Type Name Description Weight
EXAM EMCQ Semester 1 (L.O 1-2)

1h MCQ on Semester 1 topics.

25
EXAM EMCQ Semester 2 (L.O 1-2)

1h MCQ on Semester 2 material

25
INDIVIDUAL PRESENTATION Podcast

Produce a podcast episode for a lay audience explaining a impactful disease.

25
COURSEWORK Analysis of a Clinical Physiology Paper

Choose a recent paper and produce a synthesis of the paper for a lay audience in the style of a New Scientist or The Conversation piece.

25

Teaching and Learning Strategy

Hours
Lecture

18 x 2 hour lectures 2 x 2 hour revision sessions.

Please note, for 2020/21, a blended learning style of delivery will be used. Students unable to attend Bangor University campus will be able to follow all aspects of the teaching online. On campus teaching may be integrated, subject to Covid-19 related restrictions.

44
Private study 156

Transferable skills

  • Literacy - Proficiency in reading and writing through a variety of media
  • Numeracy - Proficiency in using numbers at appropriate levels of accuracy
  • Computer Literacy - Proficiency in using a varied range of computer software
  • Self-Management - Able to work unsupervised in an efficient, punctual and structured manner. To examine the outcomes of tasks and events, and judge levels of quality and importance
  • Exploring - Able to investigate, research and consider alternatives
  • Information retrieval - Able to access different and multiple sources of information
  • Inter-personal - Able to question, actively listen, examine given answers and interact sensitevely with others
  • Critical analysis & Problem Solving - Able to deconstruct and analyse problems or complex situations. To find solutions to problems through analyses and exploration of all possibilities using appropriate methods, rescources and creativity.
  • Presentation - Able to clearly present information and explanations to an audience. Through the written or oral mode of communication accurately and concisely.
  • Argument - Able to put forward, debate and justify an opinion or a course of action, with an individual or in a wider group setting
  • Self-awareness & Reflectivity - Having an awareness of your own strengths, weaknesses, aims and objectives. Able to regularly review, evaluate and reflect upon the performance of yourself and others

Subject specific skills

Medicine benchmarks:

Knowledge & understanding of the anatomical and physiological processes related to the human body systems in terms of both normal and diseased states. (benchmarks: 4.2.a, b, d, e, f, g, h)

Knowledge & understanding of the (clinical) research process. (benchmark: 6.1.e)

Assess a medical situation and diagnose disease and cause and suggest therapeutic and other interventions (benchmark: 6.2.1.a, b, c, d).

Synthesise information from a variety of sources to aid knowledge and understanding of medical sciences. (benchmark: 6.1.b)

QAA Biomedical Science 2015 Benchmarks

6.11 In addition to those areas outlined in sections 4 and 5 above, a physiology graduate will have the following core knowledge, understanding, and skills:

i Integrated human physiological systems and processes:

  • chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ-system and organism levels, and the internal and external factors that regulate physiological systems;
  • structure-function relationships and fundamental functions of each body system and inter-relationships with other systems;
  • life processes including metabolism, responsiveness, movement, growth, differentiation, and reproduction;
  • systems of cell-cell communication.

ii Internal and external regulation:

  • homeostasis (autoregulation and extrinsic regulation), the function of homeostatic regulation, role of negative feedback in maintenance of homeostasis and components of feedback systems (loops);
  • neural tissue, spinal cord, spinal nerves and spinal reflexes, brain and cranial nerves and neural integration;
  • fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance including systems of control of body fluid and electrolyte balance including pH control and maintenance and disturbances and impact on health.
  • endocrine system including hormone secretion, distribution, and mechanisms of hormone action and control of endocrine activity;
  • response to internal and external stressors including adaptations and pathophysiological aspects;
  • coordination, communication, and integration of activity of body systems through neuronal, hormonal, and chemical mechanisms, and relationship with pathophysiology;
  • goal of physiological regulation, response to external changes to the environment - the key to adaption and survival in a changing environment.

iii Cellular physiology:

  • principle components of a human cell and the main transport processes (diffusion, filtration, carrier-mediated transport, vesicular transport) and maintenance of cellular integrity;
  • cellular differentiation, life cycle, and diversity of cell types and the complex intracellular chemical events that sustain life and underpin cellular response to the internal/external environment.

iv Tissues, support, and movement:

  • structural and functional attributes of epithelial tissues, connective tissues, and membranes, and core aspects of tissue injury and repair;
  • fundamental appreciation of skin, bone structure, skeleton, and articulations;
  • skeletal muscle and other types of muscular tissue;
  • exercise physiology and impact of exercise and related nutritional aspects on adaptation and regulation/maintenance of physiological processes.

v Fluids and transport:

  • cardiovascular system including nature of blood and haemostasis, heartbeat and cardiodynamics, cardiovascular physiology and cardiovascular regulation
  • lymphatic system including organisation, defences and immunity.

vi Environmental exchange:

  • Respiratory system and respiratory physiology
  • Digestive and hepatobiliary systems including components/organs and processes of digestion and absorption, detoxification and elimination;
  • metabolism and energetics;
  • urinary system and the principles of renal physiology.

vii Continuity of life:

  • reproductive system (male and female) and integration with other systems
  • development and inheritance including fertilisation, pregnancy, prenatal development, foetal growth, aspects of and human inheritance, development, and ageing.
  • Comparative physiology:
  • appreciation of fundamental similarities and differences in the complex structure and function of human body cells and systems with that of other organisms/species;
  • opportunities and limitations of comparative physiology.

Resources

Resource implications for students

Students will require access to audio-visual equipment (Such as webcams) in order to complete this module assessment. If a student is on-campus loan equipment is available.

Talis Reading list

http://readinglists.bangor.ac.uk/modules/mse-2006.html

Reading list

Human Physiology by Gillian Pocock. This is published by Oxford University Press and whilst there is a snazzy new 5th edition I find the 4th edition to be more than satisfactory for this module. Link to the publisher’s site can be found here: LINK. This is an excellent textbook for the basic state of physiology in health. Please note, purchase is not mandatory for engagement with this module.

Kumar and Clark's Clinical Medicine edited by Parveen Kumar Michael Clark. This is published by Elsevier (LINK) and is an effective synthesis of human pathophysiology and how they are clinically managed. This is a “gold-standard” textbook in medical sciences and very comprehensive. Please note, purchase is not mandatory for engagement with this module.

Please note the list below are open access resources which you can find online and use for free.

OpenStax Anatomy & Physiology an online textbook on anatomy & physiology which you can download as a PDF and is quite comprehensive. For the purpose of this module, this is more than suitable to use as a recommended textbook. There are also loads of associated resources (including videos, animations etc.) which can be accessed via the OpenStax website.

Pre- and Co-requisite Modules