Introduction Health Economics
Run by School of Health Sciences
20 Credits or 10 ECTS Credits
Organiser: Dr Nathan Bray
Overall aims and purpose
This module will enable students to develop a grounding in the techniques and uses of health economics, highlighting concepts of supply and demand, and exploring the relevance of markets and efficiency within health service provision. Students will be introduced to key methods of economic evaluation and explore examples of the application of these within healthcare decision-making. By linking economic theory with examples the module aims to provide a working knowledge sufficient to understand the contribution of health economics to modern health and social care.
Given the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, there is a possibility that this course will be taught online, or through a combination of online and face-to-face teaching in the coming academic year.
The module content will include the following topics: Macroeconomics; the role and nature of markets in health and social care; supply and demand; costs and economies of scale; health and soical care markets and efficiency. The content will also provide an introduciton to identifying, measuring and valuing consequences in health and social care; economic evaluation and decision-making (cost minimisation, cost benefit, cost effectiveness and cost utility). Students will also be provided with content which provides an introduction to the changing world of health and social care finance, globalisation and health and well-being.
D- to D+ Grade: To achieve a ‘pass’ on the module, students will be required to demonstrate a basic knowledge and understanding and of the key principles of economics within health and social care. A D- grade is required to achieve a pass grade.
C- to C+
C- to C+ Grade: To achieve a ‘good pass’ on the module, students will be required to demonstrate a good knoweldge and understanding of the principles of health economics.
B- to B+ Grade: To achieve a very good pass the student To will be required to demonstrate a very good understanding and some critical evaluation of the underlying principles of health economics.
A- to A+ Grade: To achieve an ‘excellent pass’ on the module, students will be required to demonstrate comprehensive knowledge and critical evaluation of the underlying principles of economics and the application to health and social care.
Critically evaluate the key principles and uses of health economics.
Appropriately identify and discuss economic data in order to understand the financial implications of key health and social care issues.
Understand and critically engage with debates on the use of market elements in health and care services commissioning, evaluation and improvement.
|EXAM||MCQ and short answer questions invigilated exam||
The exam will be divided into two parts: in the first part students will be asked to answer a range of multiple-choice questions. In the second part student will be asked to answer a range of short answer questions. All of the questions will relate to concepts taught in the module. Students will have 2 hours to complete the exam.
|ESSAY||A critical appraisal of a published economic evaluation||
Students will be asked to critically appraise a published journal article relating to an economic evaluation. Students will be provided with a critical appraisal checklist to help structure their assignments. At the end of the assignment, students will be asked to write a short lay summary (targeted at a general public audience) summarising the journal article.
Teaching and Learning Strategy
Private study for reading and examination preparation.
Directed study - e-learning (blackboard)
Seminars = 10 hours (1 hour per week over 10 weeks)
Lectures = 20 hours (2 hours per week over 10 weeks)
- Literacy - Proficiency in reading and writing through a variety of media
- Numeracy - Proficiency in using numbers at appropriate levels of accuracy
- Computer Literacy - Proficiency in using a varied range of computer software
- Self-Management - Able to work unsupervised in an efficient, punctual and structured manner. To examine the outcomes of tasks and events, and judge levels of quality and importance
- Exploring - Able to investigate, research and consider alternatives
- Information retrieval - Able to access different and multiple sources of information
- Critical analysis & Problem Solving - Able to deconstruct and analyse problems or complex situations. To find solutions to problems through analyses and exploration of all possibilities using appropriate methods, rescources and creativity.
- Self-awareness & Reflectivity - Having an awareness of your own strengths, weaknesses, aims and objectives. Able to regularly review, evaluate and reflect upon the performance of yourself and others
Resource implications for students
1. Purchase of text books, pens and paper. 2. Photocopying and printing 3. Subscription to internet provider to access BU on-line catalogues and Blackboard from home residence.
Talis Reading listhttp://readinglists.bangor.ac.uk/modules/nhs-3198.html
Reading lists will be available and updated via Talis for each academic year. This online database is module specific, and contains references to material that is current and topical (and includes electronically accessible material). http://readinglists.bangor.ac.uk/modules/nhs-3198.html
Edwards, R.T. and McIntosh, E. (2019). Applied Health Economics for Public Health Practice and Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Phillips, C.J. (2005). Health Economics: An Introduction for Health Professionals. London: BMJ Books.
(Both are available from the library and amazon)
Morris, S., Devlin, N. and Parkin, D. (2012). Economic Analysis in Health Care. John Wiley & Sons: Chichester.
Drummond, MF., Sculpher, MJ., Claxton, K., Stoddart, GL. and Torrance, GW. (2015). Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes (4th Edition). Oxford: Oxford Medical Publications.
http://www.nice.org.uk The National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) is a useful resource for those interested in the practice of economic evaluation and its use on decision-making
www.doh.gov.uk The Department of Health website contains a vast amount of information on the NHS and on health policy.
http://www.pssru.ac.uk/ The Personal Social Services Research Unit (PSSRU) has cost data for a range of health and social care services.
www.euroqol.org The EuroQol Group website has information on measuring and valuing health and references to papers using the EQ-5D.
http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook An online public health textbook that covers all the public health skills and competencies of the UK Faculty of Public Health.
Courses including this module
Optional in courses:
- LL3M: BA Cymdeithaseg & Health and Social Care year 3 (BA/CHSC)
- LM52: BA Health & Social Care / Criminology & Criminal Justice year 3 (BA/HSCCCJ)
- LL53: BA Health & Social Care/Sociology year 3 (BA/HSCS)
- LL54: BA Hlth & Scl Care/Social Policy year 3 (BA/HSCSP)
- LL5K: Polisi Cymdeithasol & Health and Social Care year 3 (BA/PCHSC)