Run by School of Languages, Literatures and Linguistics
20 Credits or 10 ECTS Credits
Organiser: Dr Christopher Shank
Overall aims and purpose
This module is divided into two parts. The first will explore language change via external forces such what happens when languages come in contact with one another, how conscious and unconscious factors can motivate language change such as prestige, language attitudes, and social networks and variation. The second part of the module will explore ‘internal’ forces that motivate language change such as lexicalization, grammaticalization and pragmaticalization. Grammaticalization refers to the change whereby lexical terms and constructions serve grammatical functions in certain linguistic contexts and, once grammaticalized, continue to develop new grammatical functions. The second half of the module emphasizes the mechanisms for the creation of grammar and the universal paths of development that grammatical morphemes follow. The implications of grammaticalization for language typology, language change, synchronic and diachronic analysis of both form and meaning are explored.
- To introduce students to current literature and theories regarding language change.
- To acquaint students with the principles, concepts and basic assumptions of ‘external’ sociolinguistic approaches to explain language variation and change including the impact of language contact, social variation, social networks, prestige and language attitudes.
- To acquaint students with the principles, concepts and basic assumptions of ‘internal’ explanations for language change including the process of lexicalization, the theory of grammaticalization as well as the process of pragmaticalization.
- To encourage students to think creatively about questions raised by the theory of grammaticalization, to develop a critical attitude towards those ideas and to raise questions of their own.
- To give students an opportunity to acquire and practise using research skills appropriate to this field of study.
- To demonstrate the role and/or importance that grammaticalization processes play within both functional and usage based approaches to typology, language use, variation and change.
- To start a student on his or her own research project (via either a data driven project or a comprehensive review of literature) that examines an example or examples of either synchronic or diachronic language change.
The following are representative topics: 1.Introduction & Terms / How & why Do Languages Change? 2.Language Change in an Evolutionary Framework 3.Language Change – Transition 4.Language Change – Causation 5.Corpus based approaches to linguistics 6.History of Grammaticalization 7.Mechanisms of Lexicalization (Lxn) 8.Parameters / diagnostics of Grammaticalization (Gmx) 9.Mechanisms of Grammaticalization (Gmx) 10. Mechanisms of Pragmaticalization (Pgn)
D: student has achieved the minimum acceptable standard of understanding and/or knowledge in all the LOs
B: student has achieved a better-than-average standard of understanding and/or knowledge in all LOs
A: student has achieved a thorough standard of understanding and/or knowledge in all LOs; or student has demonstrated an exceptional level of achievement in one or more LOs
An understanding of the importance of working with corpora and of the issues and problems attendant on this type of research
A familiarity with the basic concepts necessary for understanding language change as a process and the main theories that attempt to understand and explain it.
A familiarity with the developments of the last ten years on grammaticalization, lexicalization and pragmaticalization.
An understanding of the most important theoretical and methodological questions currently being discussed in those areas.
|Written assignment, including essay||Final Research or Review of Literature Paper||
A 3000 word (+/- 10%) final research paper on an aspect of language change. This paper, which can be either data driven or a literature review, will be worth 60% of the final mark. The is a standard research or review of literature paper and will require the following: an short abstract, a clear research question, a review of literature, a methodology section, a results section, a discussion section, and a conclusion. Example research and review of literature papers will be provided as models. For the research driven paper students will be encouraged to use a corpus based methodology – access to corpora will be provided. A review of literature will require a minimum of 8 peer reviewed articles.
|ESSAY||Compare and Contrast or Expository Essay||
Question(s) to be presented in advance and will be drawn from the literature and/or topics covered up through Week 6 in the course. The goal of this assignment is for the student to reflect upon, apply and discuss some of the main ideas, concepts and issues covered in the course thus far. Students will be presented questions in 5 categories and they must answer one question from 3 of the 5 categories. Students will provide a total of 3 short answers, each no more than 700 / 750 words, for a total of 2200 words maximum.
Teaching and Learning Strategy
One 2-hour lecture per week (over 11 teaching weeks)
One 1-hour seminar per fortnight (over 11 teaching weeks)
Students will read and reflect on all of the assigned articles and conduct additional research etc in order to complete the first essay and final data driven or review of literature assignments.
- Literacy - Proficiency in reading and writing through a variety of media
- Computer Literacy - Proficiency in using a varied range of computer software
- Self-Management - Able to work unsupervised in an efficient, punctual and structured manner. To examine the outcomes of tasks and events, and judge levels of quality and importance
- Exploring - Able to investigate, research and consider alternatives
- Information retrieval - Able to access different and multiple sources of information
- Inter-personal - Able to question, actively listen, examine given answers and interact sensitevely with others
- Critical analysis & Problem Solving - Able to deconstruct and analyse problems or complex situations. To find solutions to problems through analyses and exploration of all possibilities using appropriate methods, rescources and creativity.
- Presentation - Able to clearly present information and explanations to an audience. Through the written or oral mode of communication accurately and concisely.
- Teamwork - Able to constructively cooperate with others on a common task, and/or be part of a day-to-day working team
- Management - Able to utilise, coordinate and control resources (human, physical and/or financial)
- Argument - Able to put forward, debate and justify an opinion or a course of action, with an individual or in a wider group setting
- Self-awareness & Reflectivity - Having an awareness of your own strengths, weaknesses, aims and objectives. Able to regularly review, evaluate and reflect upon the performance of yourself and others
Courses including this module
Compulsory in courses:
- Q103: MArts Cognitive Linguistics year 3 (MARTS/COGL)
Optional in courses:
- T101: BA Chinese and Linguistics year 4 (BA/CHL)
- WQ93: BA Creative Stds & English Lang. year 3 (BA/CSTEL)
- Q301: BA English Language year 3 (BA/EL)
- QQ3M: BA English Language & Cymraeg year 3 (BA/ELC)
- T123: BA English Language and Chinese year 4 (BA/ELCH)
- 8G55: BA English Language with Creative Writing (with Int Exp) year 4 (BA/ELCIE)
- Q3WL: BA Eng Lang with Creat Writ year 3 (BA/ELCW)
- Q310: BA Eng Lit with Eng Lang year 3 (BA/ELEL)
- QR3C: BA English Language and French year 4 (BA/ELFR)
- Q3WP: BA Eng Lang with Film Studs year 3 (BA/ELFS)
- QR3F: BA English Language and German year 4 (BA/ELG)
- QR3H: BA English Language and Italian year 4 (BA/ELIT)
- PQ53: BA English Language & Journalism year 3 (BA/ELJO)
- 1Q3Q: BA Linguistics and English Literature year 3 (BA/ELL)
- QQC3: BA English Lang and Lit year 3 (BA/ELLIT)
- Q3P3: BA English Lang with Media Stds year 3 (BA/ELMS)
- CQ83: BA English Language & Psychology year 3 (BA/ELPSY)
- LQ3J: BA English Lang. & Sociology year 3 (BA/ELSOC)
- QR3K: BA English Language and Spanish year 4 (BA/ELSP)
- Q315: BA English Language for TEFL year 3 (BA/ELT)
- Q3Q2: BA English Language w English Lit year 3 (BA/ENGEL)
- PQ3J: BA Film Studies and English Language year 3 (BA/FSELAN)
- QR13: BA Italian/Linguistics year 4 (BA/ITL)
- Q1Q3: BA Ling with Eng Lit year 3 (BA/LEL)
- Q140: BA Ling & the Eng Lang year 3 (BA/LELA)
- QR11: BA Linguistics/French year 4 (BA/LFR)
- QR12: BA Linguistics/German year 4 (BA/LG)
- Q100: BA Linguistics year 3 (BA/LING)
- Q104: BA Linguistics (with International Experience)) year 4 (BA/LINGIE)
- Q1C8: BA Linguistics and Psychology year 3 (BA/LP)
- QR14: BA Linguistics/Spanish year 4 (BA/LSP)
- QQ31: BA Linguistics & the English Language with International Exp year 4 (BA/LWEL)
- CQ81: BA Psychology/Linguistics year 3 (BA/PL)
- LQ31: BA Sociology/Linguistics year 3 (BA/SL)
- QQ15: BA Cymraeg and Linguistics year 3 (BA/WL)
- Q102: MArts Bilingualism year 3 (MARTS/BILING)
- Q316: MArts English Language for TEFL year 3 (MARTS/ELT)
- Q101: MArts Linguistics year 3 (MARTS/LING)