Dr N. Hockley – Staff Profile

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Dr Neal Hockley
Lecturer in Economics & Policy

Thoday Building, room S1b

Email: n.hockley@bangor.ac.uk

Tel: 01248 382769 (from U.K.)
+44 1248 382769 (International)


Neal’s Blog

Google Scholar Author Profile

Research Gate Profile



  • BA(Hons)/MA (Cambridge)
  • MRes (Edinburgh)
  • PhD (Wales): Cost-Benefit Analysis for Global Environmental Issues

Research Interests

I’m interested in a diverse range of social, economic and environmental topics including:

  • Policy evaluation, including the use and misuse of cost-benefit analysis and indicators
  • Institutions and mechanisms of nature conservation (including Payments for Ecosystem Services and Community-Based Natural Resources Management). Conservation@Bangor
  • Growth, technology and the environment
  • Justice, equity and rights in relation to natural resources and indigenous peoples
  • Economic and institutional aspects of natural resource management in Madagascar

Prospective PhD students

I welcome enquiries from prospective PhD students, but please read the following notes before contacting me.

Current/Recent Projects

P4GES: Can Paying 4 Global Ecosystem Services reduce poverty? (Funded by the ESPA Programme: DFID, NERC, ESRC)

CBESS: A hierarchical approach to the examination of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem service flows across coastal margins. Part of the NERC-funded Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (BESS) program

Glastir Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (Funded by the Welsh Government).

The NEA Shared, Cultural and Plural Values project. The importance of shared social values in economic valuation (funded by Defra/NERC/ESRC/AHRC/Welsh & NI Govts).

BRIDGE: Bridging the gap between supply and demand for valuation evidence. Part of the NERC Valuing Nature Network.

Systematic Review of the Human Well-being Impacts of Terrestrial Protected Areas. Global Environment Facility: Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel.

Research Students

Kajenje Magessa. What explains the mismatch between policy objectives and outcomes in Participatory Forest Management in Tanzania? (With Dr Sophie Wynne-Jones).

Past Research Students

O. Sarobidy Rakotonarivo: Improving the estimation of local welfare costs of conservation in low-income countries using choice experiments: Empirical evidence from Madagascar (With Helle Overgaard Larsen and Jette Bredahl Jacobsen of the University of Copenhagen)

Adnan Alsoul. Deforestation in Jefara Plain, Libya: Socio-economic and Policy Drivers. (with Rob Brook)

Arbi Sarkissian: Exploring payments for ecosystem services in the context of native tree planting in Lebanon.
(with Rob Brook and Salma Talhouk of Ibsar/AUB)

Linda Chinangwa: Community Based Natural Resource Management in Malawi. (with Andrew Pullin)


Rakotonarivo, O.S., Jacobsen, J.B., Poudyal, M., Rasoamanana, A. and Hockley, N. (2018) Estimating welfare impacts where property rights are contested: methodological and policy implications. Land Use Policy 70, 71-83 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2017.09.051

Sarkissian, A.J., Brook, R.M., Talhouk, S.N. and Hockley, N. (2017) Asset-building payments for ecosystem services: assessing landowner perceptions of reforestation incentives in Lebanon. Forest Systems 26, e012 https://doi.org/10.5424/fs/2017262-10325

Rakotonarivo, O.S., Jacobsen, J.B., Larsen, H.O., Jones, P.G.J, Nielsen, M.S., Ramamonjisoa, B.S., Mandimbiniaina, R. R., Hockley, N. (2017) Qualitative and quantitative evidence on the true local welfare costs of forest conservation in Madagascar: Are discrete choice experiments a valid ex-ante tool? World Development 94, 478–491 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.02.009

Chinangwa, L.; Pullin, A. S.; Hockley, N. (2017) Understanding community criteria for assessing forest co-management programmes: evidence from Malawi. International Forestry Review 19, 17-28. https://doi.org/10.1505/146554817820888663

Chinangwa, L. L., Pullin, A. S. & Hockley, N. (2017) Impact of forest co-management programs on forest conditions in Malawi. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 36, 338-357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10549811.2017.1307764

Kenter, J.O., Bryce, R. Christie, M. Cooper, N., Hockley, N., Irvine, K.N., Fazey, I., O’Brien, L., Orchard-Webb, J., Ravenscroft, N., Raymond, C.M., Reed, M.S., Tetta, P., & Watson, V. (2016) Shared values and deliberative valuation: Future directions. Ecosystem Services 21B, 358–371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.10.006

Rakotonarivoa, O.S., Schaafsma, M. & Hockley, N. (2016) A systematic review of the reliability and validity of discrete choice experiments in valuing non-market environmental goods. Journal of Environmental Management 183, 98–109 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.08.032

Chinangwa, L., Pullin, A.S., & Hockley, N. (2016) Livelihoods and Welfare Impacts of Forest Comanagement. International Journal of Forestry Research. Article ID 5847068, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5847068

Poudyal, M., Ramamonjisoa, B.S., Hockley, N. Rakotonarivo, O.S, Gibbons, J.M., Mandimbiniaina, R., Rasoamanana, A., Jones, J.P.G. (2016) Can REDD+ social safeguards reach the ‘right’ people? Lessons from Madagascar. Global Environmental Change. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.01.004

Chinangwa, L., Sinclair, F., Pullin, A. S., & Hockley, N. (2015) Can co-management of government forest reserves achieve devolution? Evidence from Malawi. Forests Trees and Livelihoods. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14728028.2015.1087886

Pienkowski, T., Williams, S., McLaren, K., Wilson, B. & Hockley, N. (2015) Alien invasions and livelihoods: Economic benefits of invasive Australian Red Claw crayfish in Jamaica. Ecological Economics 112, 68–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2015.02.012

Kenter, J.O., O’Brien, L., Hockley, N., Ravenscroft, N., Fazey, I., Irvine, K.N., Reed, M.S., Christie, M., Brady, E., Bryce, R., Church, A., Cooper, N., Davies, A., Evely, A., Everard, M., Fish, R., Fisher, J.A., Jobstvogt, N., Molloy, C., Orchard-Webb, J., Ranger, S., Ryan, M., Watson, V. & Williams, S. (2015) What are shared and social values of ecosystems? Ecological Economics 111, 86–99.

Hockley, N. (2014) Cost–benefit analysis: a decision-support tool or a venue for contesting ecosystem knowledge? Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 32, 283–300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/c1384j

Pollini, J., Hockley, N., Muttenzer, F.D. & Ramamonjisoa, B.S. (2014). The transfer of natural resource management rights to local communities. In Conservation and Environmental Management in Madagascar (Ed I.R. Scales) Routledge Earthscan. Link.

Gibbons JM, Williamson JC, Williams AP, Withers PJA, Hockley N, Harris IM, Hughes JW, Taylor RL, Jones DL, Healey JR (2014) Sustainable nutrient management at field, farm and regional level: soil testing, nutrient budgets and the trade-off between lime application and greenhouse gas emissions. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 188, 48–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2014.02.016

Ferguson, B., Gardner, C.J., Andriamarovolonona, M.M., Healy, T., Muttenzer, F., Smith, S.M., Hockley, N. & Gingembre, M. (2014) Governing Ancestral Land in Madagascar: Have Policy Reforms Contributed to Social Justice? In: Governance for Justice and Environmental Sustainability: Lessons across Natural Resource Sectors in Sub-Saharan Africa (eds M. Sowman & R. Wynberg). Routledge Earthscan. Amazon link

Pullin, A. S., Bangpan, M., Dalrymple, S., Dickson, K., Haddaway, N. R., Healey, J. R., Hauari, H., Hockley, N., Jones, J. P. G., Knight, T., Vigurs, C. & Oliver, S. (2013) Human well-being impacts of terrestrial protected areas. Environmental Evidence 2(1) 19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2047–2382–2-19

Robinson D.A., N. Hockley, D. Cooper, B.A. Emmett, A.M. Keith, I. Lebron, B. Reynolds, E. Tipping, A.M. Tye, C.W. Watts, W.R. Whalley, H.I.J. Black, G.P. Warren, J.S. Robinson (2013) Natural Capital and Ecosystem Services, Developing an Appropriate Soils Framework as a basis for Valuation. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 57 1023–1033. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2012.09.008

Robinson, D.A., Hockley N., Dominati E., Lebron I., Scow K.M., Reynolds B., Emmett B.A., Keith A.M., de Jonge L.W, Schjønning P., Moldrup P., Jones S.B., and Tuller M. (2012) Natural capital, ecosystem services and soil change: why soil science must embrace an ecosystems approach. Vadose Zone Journal. 11(1): http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/vzj2011.0051

See also coverage and an abridged version of the paper in CSA news: https://www.soils.org/files/publications/csa-news/why-soil-science-must-adapt-an-ecosystems-approach.pdf

Hockley, N. (2011) Fallacy in costs of pollution control. Nature 478(7368) 188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/478188d

Hockley, N. (2010) Low repopulation of poor districts in New Orleans proves little. Nature. 467(7313) 271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/467271e

Hockley, N. (2010) No shortcuts to prioritising conservation funding. Biological Conservation 143(4) 825. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.12.020

Hockley, N., Gibbons, J.M. and Edwards-Jones, G. (2009) Risks of extreme heat and unpredictability. Science 324: http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.324.5924.177a

Jones, J.P.G., Andriamarovololona, M.M., & Hockley, N. (2008) The importance of taboos and social norms to conservation in Madagascar. Conservation Biology, 22: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523–1739.2008.00970.x

Jones, J.P.G., Andriamarovololona, M.M., Hockley, N.J., Gibbons, J.M., & Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2008) Testing the use of interviews as a tool for monitoring trends in the harvesting of wild species. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45: 1205–1212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365–2664.2008.01487.x

Hockley, N., Jones, J.P., & Gibbons, J.M. (2008) Technological progress must accelerate to reduce global footprint overshoot. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 6(3), 122–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/1540–9295(2008)6[122:TPMATR]2.0.CO;2

Hockley, N.J. & Andriamarovololona, M.M. (2007). The economics of community forest management in Madagascar: is there a free lunch? USAID, Washington, D.C. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNADL290.pdf

Hockley, N.J., Edwards-Jones, G., & Healey, J.R. (2007) Maximizing the efficiency of conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 22(6), 286–287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2007.02.012

Jones, J.P.G., Andriahajaina, F.B., & Hockley, N. (2007) The potential of native species aquaculture to achieve conservation objectives: freshwater crayfish in Madagascar. International Journal of Biodiversity Science & Management, 3(4), 217–222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17451590709618175

Jones, J.P.G., Andriahajaina, F.B., Hockley, N.J., Crandall, K.A. and Ravoahangimalala, O.R. -2007 The ecology and conservation status of Madagascar’s endemic freshwater crayfish (Parastacidae; Astacoides). Freshwater Biology 52: 1820–1833. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365–2427.2007.01766.x

Hockley, N.J. & Razafindralambo, R. (2006). A social cost-benefit analysis of conserving the Ranomafana-Andringitra-Pic d’Ivohibe Corridor in Madagascar. USAID, Washington, D. C. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNADI193.pdf

Jones, J.P.G., Andriahajaina, F.B., Ranambinintsoa, E.H., Hockley, N.J., & Ravoahangimalala, O. (2006) The economic importance of freshwater crayfish harvesting in Madagascar and the potential of community-based conservation to improve management. Oryx, 40(2), 168–175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0030605306000500

Hockley, N.J., Jones, J.P.G., Andriahajaina, F.B., Manica, A., Ranambitsoa, E.H., & Randriamboahary, J.A. (2005) When should communities and conservationists monitor exploited resources? Biodiversity and Conservation, 14(11), 2795–2806. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10531–005–8416–8

Hockley, N. (2005). Debt for Nature Swaps. In Principles of Conservation Biology (eds M.J. Groom, G. Meffe & C.R. Carroll). 3rd Edition Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. Link

Jones, J.P.G., Andriahajaina, F.B., Hockley, N.J., Balmford, A., & Ravoahangimalala, O.R. (2005) A multidisciplinary approach to assessing the sustainability of freshwater crayfish harvesting in Madagascar. Conservation Biology, 19(6), 1863–1871. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523–1739.2005.00269.x-i1

Balmford, A., Gravestock, P., Hockley, N., McClean, C.J., & Roberts, C.M. (2004) The worldwide costs of marine protected areas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(26), 9694–9697. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0403239101

Braendle C, Hockley N., Brevig T, Shingleton AW, Keller L. (2003) Size-correlated division of labour and spatial distribution of workers in the driver ant, Dorylus molestus. Naturwissenschaften 90:277–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114–003–0426–3