School of Ocean Sciences

Professor Peter J leB Williams

Photograph of Prof Peter Williams

Biography

I joined the Bangor University as Professor of Marine Biology, later to be Professor of Marine Biogeochemistry. My original training was as an industrial biochemist but on graduating I rightly came to the view that oceanography offered more interesting challenges than food technology. My entry into oceanography was enabled by a Post Doctorate fellowship at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. From there I moved to the then just formed department of Oceanography at Southampton University; where I remained for some 17 years. Then followed 2 year spells at the Bigelow Lab in Maine and as Professor of Marine Microbiology at the University of Gothenburg, before taking up the post at Bangor. On retirement I was awarded emeritus professor status.

Research Interest

My initial research interest was in the dynamics of DOC and its composition as food for marine bacteria. This led me to be one of a group of people who drove through the new and the present paradigm of the role of bacteria in the planktonic food web. From this my interest broadened to overall heterotrophic metabolism - respiration. To enable this work I developed an ultra high precision analytical method for the analysis of oxygen concentrations in seawater and the group I assembled became leaders in this field. This work led on to the question of the balance of metabolism (photosynthesis versus respiration) in the oceans and I played a leading role in the debate over purported ocean heterotrophy. Recently, I have developed an interest on the physiology and biochemistry of micro-algae in relation to their potential for biomass and biofuel production.

I have co-edited and published a number of books, the most recent being: Phytoplankton Productivity: Carbon Assimilation in Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems" (2002), "Respiration in Aquatic Ecosystems" (2005) and "Marine Ecology - Processes, Systems, and Impacts" (2005).

I have an interest in the interplay between art and science and organised a highly successful Art Exhibition "Plankton as an Artistic Inspiration" at the Feb 2007 Ocean Sciences Meeting of the American Society for Limnology and Oceanography in Santa Fe.

Esteem Indicators

Board of Directors of the American Society for Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) (2000-2004), and Chair of the Committee for the Redfield Award for Lifetime Achievement (2004-2006). Co-organiser, ASLO Aquatic Sciences Meeting (2007). Organising Committee, Symposium on Aquatic Microbial Ecology. Invited participant, Commission Internationale pour l'Exploration Scientifique de la Meditérranée workshop in Cambos, Spain (2005). Invited to give Plenary Lecture, ASLO Newfoundland (2008).

Publications

Peer Reviewed Journal Papers

Williams P. J. le B and Lefévre D (2008).
An Assessment of the Measurement of Phytoplankton Respiration Rates from Dark 14C incubations. Limnol. Oceanogr Methods 6 1-11

Conan, P., Søndegaard, M., Kragh, T., Thingstad, F., Pujo-Payl, M., Williams, P. J. le B., Markager, S., Cauwet, G., Borch, N. H., Evans, D., and Riemann, B. (2007).
Partitioning of organic production in marine plankton communities: The effects of inorganic nutrient ratios and community composition on new dissolved organic matter. Limnol. Oceanogr. 52 753-765

Mcandrew P.M., Björkman K.M., Church M.J., Morris P.J., Jachowski N, Williams P.J. le B.and Karl D.M. (2007)
Metabolic response of oligotrophic plankton communities to deep water nutrient enrichment. Marine Ecol. Prog. Ser 332:63-75

Reinthaler, T., van Aken, H., Veth, C., Lebaron, P., Arístegui, J., Robinson, C., Williams, P. J. Le B. and J. H. Gerhard. (2006)
Prokaryotic respiration and production in the meso- and bathypelagic realm of the eastern and western North Atlantic basin. Limnol Oceangr 51 1262-1273

Bowers, D.G., Evans, D., Thomas, D.N., Ellis, K. and Williams, P.J.leB. 2004
Interpreting the colour of an estuary. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 59, 13-20.
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Williams, P.J.leB., Morris, P.J. and Karl, D.M. (2004)
Net Community Production and Metabolic Balance at the Oligotrophic Ocean Site, StationALOHA. Deep Sea Research, 51, 1563-1578.

Evans, G. L., P. J. le B. Williams and E. G. Mitchelson-Jacob (2003).
Physical and anthropogenic effects on observed long-term nutrients changes in the Irish Sea. Estuarine, Coastal Shelf Science, 57, 1159-1168.

Karl, D.,M., Laws, E. A., Morris, P, J., Williams, P. J. Le B and Emerson S. (2003)
Metabolic balance in the sea. Nature, 426 32

Rodrigues, R. M. N. V. and Williams, P. J. Le B. (2002)
Inorganic nitrogen assimilation by the picoplankton and whole plankton in a coastal ecosystem. Limnol and Oceanogr 47 1608-1616

Geider, Richard J, Evan H, Delucia, Paul G. Falkowski, Adrien C, Finzi, J. Philip Grime, John Grace, Todd M, Kana, Julie La Roche, Stephen P, Long, Bruce A. Osborne, Trevor Platt, I, Colin Prentice, John A. Raven, William H, Schlesinger, Victor Smetacek, Venetia Stuart, Shubha Sathyendranath, Richard B, Thomas, Tom C, Vogelmann, Peter Williams, F. Ian Woodward (2001)
Primary productivity of planet earth: biological determinants and physical constraints in terrestrial and aquatic habitats Global Change Biology 7, 849-882

Joint, I, Savidge G. and Williams P. J. Le B (2001)
Comparisons of plankton activity at 59°N and 37°N during two Lagrangian drift experiments in the North Atlantic in June and July 1996. Deep-sea Res II

Rodrigues, M.N.V.R. and Williams, P.J.leB. (2001)
Heterotrophic bacterial utilization of nitrogenous and non–nitrogenous substrates, determined from ammonia and oxygen fluxes. Limnology and Oceanography, 46, 1675–1683.

Rodrigues, R. M. N. V. and Williams, P. J. Le B. (2000)
The relative utilisation of nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous substrates by heterotrophic bacteria for growth, determined from measurements of the coupled fluxes of ammonia and oxygen. Limnology and Oceanography

Søndergaard, M., Williams, P.J.leB., Cauwet, G., Riemann, B., Robinson, C., Terzic, S., Woodward, E.M.S. and Worm, J. (2000)
Net accumulation and flux of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic nitrogen in marine plankton. Limnology and Oceanography, 45, 1097–1111.

Williams, P.J.leB (2000a)
Micro–heterotrophs and the Dynamics of Dissolved Organic Material. In:Microbial Ecology of the Oceans [Ed. Kirchman, D.J.], Wiley–Liss, NY, pp. 542.

Anderson, T.R. and Williams, P.J.leB. (1999)
A one-dimensional model of dissolved organic carbon cycling in the water column incorporating combined biological- photochemical decomposition. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13(2), 337–349.

Robinson, C. and Williams, P.J.leB. (1999)
Plankton net community production and dark community respiration in the Arabian Sea during September 1994. Deep-Sea Research II, 46, 745–766.

Robinson, C., Archer, S.D. and Williams, P.J.leB. (1999)
Microbial dynamics in coastal waters of East Antarctica: plankton production and respiration. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 180, 23–36.

Thingstad, T.F., Havskum, H., Kaas, H., Nielsen, T.G., Riemann, B., Lefevre, D. and Williams, P.J.leB. (1999)
Bacteria–protist interactions and organic matter degradation under P–limited conditions: Analysis of an enclosure experiment using a simple model. Limnology and Oceanography, 44(1), 62–79.

Williams, P. J. Le B. and Bowers, D. G. (1999)
Regional Carbon Imbalances in the Oceans. Science 284 173-174

Williams, P.J.leB. and Bowers, D.G. (1999)
Major regional carbon imbalances in the oceans. Science, 284, 173.–174.

Anderson, T. R. and Williams P. J. Le B. (1998)
Modelling the Seasonal Cycle of dissolved Organic carbon at Station E1 in the English Channel. Estuarine,.Coastal and Shelf Science. 46 93-109

Williams, P. J. Le B.(1998)
The Balance of Plankton Respiration and Photosynthesis in the Open Oceans. Nature 394 55-57.

Williams, P.J.leB. (1998)
The balance of plankton respiration and photosynthesis in the open ocean. Nature, 394, 55–57.

Williams, P.J.leB. and Egge, J. (1998)
The Management and Behaviour of the Mesocosms. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 46, 3–14.

Lefèèvre, D., Minas, H.J., Minas, M., Robinson, C., Williams, P.J.le B. and Woodward E.M.S..(1997)
Review of Gross community production, primary production, net community production and dark community respiration in the gulf of Lions. Deep Sea Res II 44 801-832

Williams, P. J. Le B., Robinson, C., Søndergaard, M., Jespersen, A-M., Bentley, T. L., Lefèvre, D., Richardson, K., and Riemann, B., (1996)
Algal 14C and Total Carbon Metabolisms. 2. Experimental Observations with the Diatom Skeletonema costatum. J. Plank. Res. 18 1959-1974.

Williams, P.J.le B. and Lefèvre, D. (1996)
Algal 14C and total carbon metabolisms. 1. Models to account for respiration and recycling. J. Plank. Res.18 1941-1959

Blight S P.,. Bentley T L, Lefèvre D, Robinson C, Rodrigues R, Rowlands J and Williams P.J. Le B. (1995)
The phasing of autotrophic and heterotrophic plankton metabolism in a temperate coastal ecosystem. Marine Ecology Progress Series 128 61-74.

BOYD, P, Robinson, C, Savidge, G, and Williams, P. J. Le B. . (1995)
Water column and sea ice primary production during austral spring in the Bellingshausen Sea. Deep-Sea Research II, 42 1177-1200.

Williams, P. J. Le B. (1995)
Evidence for the seasonal accumulation of carbon-rich dissolved organic material, its scale in comparison with changes in particulate material and the consequential effect on net C/N assimilation ratios. Marine Chemistry, 51 17-29.

Daneri, G, Riemann, B and Williams, P. J. Le B. (1994)
In situ bacterial production and growth yield measured by thymidine, leucine and fractionated dark oxygen uptake. J. Plank. Res., 16, 105-113.

Lefèvre, D, Williams, P. J. Le B. and Bentley, T L . (1994)
Oxygen based production measurements.in the Gulf of Lions. CEC Water Pollution Reports, 32 125-132

Levèvre, D, Bentley, T L, Robinson, C, Blight, S P and Williams, P. J. Le B. . (1994)
Temperature response of gross and net community production and respiration in time-varying assemblages of temperate marine micro-plankton. J. Exp. Marine Biology Ecol., 184, 201-215.

Robinson, C and Williams, P. J. Le B. (1993)
Temperature response of Antarctic Plankton Respiration. J. Plank. Res., 15, 1035-1051.

Williams, P. J. Le B. (1993)
Chemical and Tracer Methods of Measuring Plankton Production : what do they in fact measure? The 14C technique considered. ICES Mar. Sci. Symp., 197, 20-36.

Williams, P. J. Le B. (1993)
On the Definition of Plankton Production Terms..ICES Mar. Sci. Symp., 197, 9-19.

Williams, P. J. Le B., Daneri, G and Robinson, C. (1993)
Oxygen flux and bacterial growth measurements made during the EROS Valdivia cruise, 1992. CEC Water Pollution Reports, 30, 73-78.

Williams, P. J. Le B. and Robinson, C. (1992)
Analysis of oxygen-based productivity measurements through phase I of the EROS 2000 programme. CEC Water Pollution Reports, 28, 151-162

Robinson, C and Williams, P. J. Le B. (1991)
Development and Assessment of an Analytical System for the Accurate and Continual Measurement of Total Dissolved Inorganic Carbon. Marine Chemistry, 34, 157-175.

Watson, A J, Robinson, C, Robertson, J E, Williams, P. J. Le B. and Fasham, M J. (1991)
Spatial Variability in Surface Carbon Dioxide in the North Atlantic, Spring 1989. Nature, 350, 50-53

Williams, P. J. Le B. (1991)
The Importance of Losses During Microbial Growth: Commentary on the Measurement, Physiology and Ecology of the Release of Dissolved Organic Material. Marine Microbial Food Webs, 4, 175-206

Williams, P. J. Le B. and Purdie, D A. (1991)
In vitro and in situ derived rates of gross production, net community production and respiration of oxygen in the oligotrophic subtropical gyre of the North Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., 38, 891-910

Williams, P. J. Le B. and Robertson, J E (1991)
Overall Plankton Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Metabolism: The Problem of Reconciling Observations and Calculations of Photosynthetic Quotients. J. Plank. Res., 13, 153-169

Williams, P. J. Le B. and Robinson, C (1990)
Seasonal Differences in the Control of Productivity in the Rhone Outfall Region of the Gulf of Lions. CEC Water Pollution Reports, 20, 145-154

Grande, K E, Williams, P. J. Le B., Marra, J, Purdie, D, Heinemann, K, Eppley, R W and Bender, M (1989)
Primary Production in the North Pacific Gyre: A comparison of rates determined by the 14C, O2 concentration, and 18O methods Deep-Sea Res., 36, 1621-1634

Williams, P. J. Le B., Robinson, C and Owens, N J P (1989)
Interrelationships between carbon, oxygen and nitrogen metabolism pp 150-154. In: CEC Water Pollution Research Report 14: EROS 2000, [Eds. J-M Martin and H Barth]. P 453. Ministere Science de la Technologie, Paris

Bender, M, Grande, K, Johnson, K, Marra, J, Williams, P. J. Le B., Sieburth, J, Pilson, M, Langdon, C, Hitchcock, G, Orchardo, J, Hunt, C, Donaghay, P and Heinemman, C (1987)
A comparison of four methods for determining planktonic community production Limnol. Oceanogr., 32, 1085-1098

Ducklow, H W, Purdie, D A, Williams, P. J. Le B. and Davies, J H (1987)
Bacteria. Link or sink? Science, 235, 88-89

JACKSON, R H, Williams, P. J. Le B. and Joint, I R (1987)
Freshwater phytoplankton in the low salinity region of the river Tamar estuary Est. Coast, Shelf. Sci., 25, 299-311

Johnson, K M, Williams, P. J. Le B., Branstrom, L and Sieburth, J Mc N (1987)
Coulometric total carbon dioxide analysis for marine studies: Automation and calibration Mar. Chem., 21, 117-133

Williams, P. J. Le B. and Marra, J (1987)
The measurement of gross planktonic production Nature, 325, 738

Ducklow, H W, Purdie, D A, Williams, P. J. Le B. and Davies, J H (1986)
Bacterioplankton: a sink for carbon in a coastal marine plankton community Science, 232, 865-867

Davies, J M and Williams, P. J. Le B. (1984)
Verification of 14C and O2 derived primary organic production measurements using an enclosed system J. Plank. Res., 6, 457-474

Holligan, P M, Williams, P. J. Le B., Purdie, D and Harris, R P (1984)
Photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen supply of plankton populations in stratified, frontal and tidally mixed shelf waters Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 17, 201-203

Williams, P. J. Le B., Heinemann, K R, Marra, J and Purdie, D A (1983)
Comparison of 14C and and O2 measurements of phytoplankton production in oligotrophic waters Nature, 305, 49-50

Knap, A H and Williams, P. J. Le B. (1982)
Experimental studies to determine the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons from refinery effluent on an estuarine system Env. Sci. Technol., 16, 1-4

Knap, A H, Williams, P. J. Le B. and LYSIAK, E (1982)
Petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments of Southampton Water estuary Marine Environmental Research, 7, 235-249

Williams, P. J. Le B. (1981)
Incorporation of microheterotrophic processes into the classical paradigm of the planktonic food web Opening lecture to the 15th Symposium of Marine Biology Kieler Meeresforschung, 5, 1-28

Packard, T T and Williams, P. J. Le B. (1980)
Rates of respiratory oxygen consumption and electron transport in surface seawater from the northwest Atlantic Oceanol. Acta., 4, 351-358

Parsons, T R, Albright, L J, Whitney, F, Wong, C S and Williams, P. J. Le B. (1980)
The effect of glucose on the productivity of seawater: an experimental approach using controlled aquatic ecosystems Marine Environmental Research, 4, 229-242

Williams, P. J. Le B. (1980)
Microbial contribution to overall marine plankton metabolism: direct measurements of respiration Oceanol. Acta., 4, 359-364

Williams, P. J. Le B. and Jenkinson, N W (1980)
A transportable, microprocessor -controlled precise Winkler titration, suitable for field station and shipboard use Limnol. Oceanogr., 27, 576-584

Williams, P. J. Le B. and Jenkinson, W. (1980)
A simple and inexpensive 4p light collector and two designs for a meter for light attenuation studies Freshwater Biol., 10, 491-496

Wong, M K and Williams, P. J. Le B. (1980)
A study of three extraction methods for petroleum hydrocarbons in marine sediments Marine Chemistry, 9, 183-190

Gershey, R M, Mackinnon, M D, Williams, P. J. Le B. and Moore, R M (1979)
Comparison of three oxidation methods for the analysis of dissolved organic carbon in seawater Marine Chemistry, 7, 289-306

Knap, A H, Williams, P. J. Le B. and Tyler, I (1979)
Contribution of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons to the organic carbon budget of an estuary Nature, Lond., 279, 517-519

Moore, R M, Burton, J D, Williams, P. J. Le B. and Young, M (1979)
The behaviour of dissolving organic material, iron and manganese in estuarine mixing Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta., 43, 919-926

Williams, P. J. Le B. , Raine, R C T and Bryan,J R (1979)
Agreement between the 14C and the oxygen methods of measuring phytoplankton production: a reassessment of photosynthetic quotient. Oceanol. Acta ., 2,, 411-416

De Souza Lima, H and Williams, P. J. Le B. (1978)
Oxygen consumption by the planktonic population of an estuary -Southampton Water Estuar. and Coast. Mar. Sci., 6, 515 -521

Collins, K J and Williams, P. J. Le B. (1977)
An automated photochemical method for the determination of dissolved organic carbon in sea and estuarine waters Marine Chemistry, 5, 123-141

Bryan, J R, Riley, J P and Williams, P. J. Le B. (1976)
A procedure for making precise measurements of oxygen concentration for productivity and related studies J. Exp. Mar. Biol,. Ecol., 21, 191-197

Williams, P. J. Le B. and Yentsch, C S (1976)
An examination of photosynthetic production, excretion of photosynthetic products and heterotrophic utilization of dissolved organic compounds with reference to results from a coastal subtropical sea Marine Biology, 35, 31-40

Williams, P. J. Le B., Berman, T and Holm-Hansen, O (1976)
Amino acid uptake and respiration by marine heterotrophs Marine Biology, 35, 41-47

Taylor, P A and Williams, P. J. Le B. (1975)
Theoretical studies on the coexistence of competing species under continuous flow conditions Can. J. Microbiol., 21, 90-98

Derenbach, J and Williams, P. J. Le B. (1974)
Autotrophic and bacterial production: fractionation of plankton populations by differential filtration of samples from the English Channel Marine Biology, 15, 263-269

Banoub, M W and Williams, P. J. Le B. (1973)
Seasonal changes in the organic forms of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in sea water at E1 in the English Channel during 1968 J. Marine Biology Ass. U.K., 53, 695-703

Williams, P. J. Le B. (1973)
The validity of the application of simple kinetics analysis to heterogenous populations Limnol. Oceanogr., 18, 159-165

Banoub, M W and Williams, P. J. Le B. (1972)
Measurement of microbial activity and organic material in the western Mediterranean Sea Deep-Sea Res., 19, 433-443

Williams, P. J. Le B. (1972)
Kinetic and dynamic aspects of heterotrophic micro-organisms in the sea IAEE Panel Meeting, Reykjavik

Williams, P. J. Le B., Berman, T and Holm-Hansen, O (1972)
Potential sources of error in the measurement of low rates of planktonic photosynthesis and excretion Nature, New Biol., 236, 91-92

Andrews, P and Williams, P. J. Le B. (1971)
Heterotrophic utilization of dissolved organic compounds in the sea. III: Measurements of the oxidation rates and concentrations of glucose and amino acids in sea water J. Marine Biology Ass. U.K., 51, 111-125

Snow, N B and Williams, P. J. Le B. (1971)
A simple method to determine the O:N ratio of small marine animals J. Marine Biology Ass. U.K., 51, 105-109

Williams, P. J. Le B. (1970)
Heterotrophic utilization of dissolved organic compounds in the sea. I: Size distribution of population and relationship between respiration and incorporation of growth substrates J. Marine Biology Ass. U.K., 50, 859-870

Williams, P. J. Le B. and Gray, R W (1970)
Heterotrophic utilization of dissolved organic compounds in the sea. II: Observations on the responses of heterotrophic marine populations to abrupt increase in amino acid concentration J. Marine Biology Ass. U.K., 50, 871-881

Williams, P. J. Le B. (1969)
The wet oxidation of organic matter in sea water Liminol. Oceanogr., 14, 292-297

Williams, P. J. Le B. and Askew, C (1968)
A method of measuring the mineralization by micro-organisms of organic compounds in sea water Deep-Sea Res., 15, 365-375

Williams, P. J. Le B. and Watson, S W (1968)
Autotrophy in Nitrosocystis oceanus J. Bacteriol., 96, 1640-1648

Books

del Giorgio, P.A. and Williams, P.J.leB. (2005a)
Respiration in Aquatic Ecosystems. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 315.

Kaiser, M.J., M Attrill, S Jennings, DN Thomas, D Barnes, AS Brierley, N Polunin, D Raffaelli and P J LeB Williams. 2005
Marine Ecology - Processes, Systems and Impacts. Oxford University Press. 584 pages. ISBN 019924975X.
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Williams P.J. LeB, Thomas, D.N. and Reynolds, C.S. (Eds.) 2002
Phytoplankton Productivity - Carbon assimilation in marine and freshwater ecosystems. Blackwell Publishing. 320 pages. ISBN 0632057114.

Book Chapters

del Giorgio, P.A. and Williams, P.J.leB. (2005b)
Respiration in aquatic ecosystems: from single cells to the biosphere. In: [Eds.] P.A.delGiorgio and P.J.leB. Williams Respiration in Aquatic Ecosystems, Oxford University Press, Chapter 14, pp. 267-303.

Robinson, C. and Williams, P.J.leB. (2005)
Respiration and its measurement in surface marine waters. In: [Eds.] P.A. del Giorgio and P.J.leB. Williams Respiration in Aquatic Ecosystems, Oxford University Press, Chapter 9, pp. 147-180.

Williams, P. J. le B., and del Giorgio, P. A. 2005.
Chapter 1: Respiration in Aquatic Ecosystems: History and Background, pp. 1-17. In P. A. del Giorgio, and P. J. le B. Williams, [eds] "Respiration in Aquatic Ecosystems", OUP, Oxford.

Williams, P.J.leB. and del Giorgio, P.A. (2005)
Respiration in Aquatic Ecosystems: History and Background. In: [Eds.] P.A. del Giorgio and P.J.leB. Williams Respiration in Aquatic Ecosystems, Oxford University Press, Chapter 1, pp. 1-17.

Williams, P. J. le B. (2000)
Net production and Respiration. pp. 37-60 In: The Changing Ocean Carbon Cycle: A midterm synthesis of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, pp. 514. R .B. Hanson, H. W. Ducklow, and J .G. Field (Editors). IGBP Series 5. CUP

Williams, P.J.leB (2000b)
Net production and respiration. pp. 37–60 inThe Changing Ocean Carbon Cycle: A Midterm Synthesis of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study. [Eds. Hanson, R.B., Ducklow,H.W. and Field, J.G.], IGBP Series 5, Cambridge University Press, pp.514.

Williams, P.J.leB. (1999)
Heterotrophic bacteria and the dynamics of dissolved organic material. In:Microbial Ecology of the Oceans [ed. D.J. Kirchman], Wiley–Liss, New York, pp.153–199.

Staham, P.J. and Williams, P.J.leB (1998)
The automated determination of dissolved organic carbon by ultra violet photo–oxidation. In: Seawater Analysis [eds. Kremlin and Ehrhardt], 421–436.

Statham, P. J. and Williams, P. J. le B (1998)
The Automated Determination of Dissolved Organic Carbon by UltraViolet Photo-oxidation. pp 421-436 In Seawater Analysis Also authors, ed Kremlin and Ehrhardt

Williams, P. J. le B. and von Bodungen, B (1989)
Export Productivity from the Photic Zone pp 99-115, In: "Productivity of the Ocean: Present and Past", [Eds. W.H. Berger, V.S. Smetacek and G Wefer]. pp 471, Wiley-Interscience, Chichester

Robinson, C and Williams, P. J. Le B. (1989)
Evidence for Physical Control of O2 and T-CO2 in the outflow of the Rhone Estuary pp 387-394. In: CEC Water Pollution Research Report 14: EROS 2000, [Eds. J-M Martin and H Barth]. P 453. Ministere Science de la Technologie, Paris

Williams, P. J. Le B. and Robertson, J I (1989)
A serious inhibition problem from a Niskin sampler encountered during plankton productivity studies Limnol. Oceanogr., 34, 1300-1305

Williams, P. J. le B. (1985)
Analysis organic matter pp. 160-200. In: Practical Estuarine Chemistry, [Ed.P.C.Head]. pp337 Cambridge University Press

Williams, P. J. le B. (1984)
A review of measurements of respiration rates of marine plankton populations pp 357-389. In: Heterotrophy in the Sea, [Eds. J E HOBBIE and P. J. le B. Williams]. pp 569. Plenum Press, NY

Williams, P. J. le B. (1984)
Bacterial production in the marine food chain: the Emperor's new suit of clothes pp 271-299. In: Flows of Energy and Material in Marine Ecosystems: Theory and Practice, [Ed. M J R Fasham]. Plenum Press, NY

Williams, P. J. le B. (1981)
A Review of Measurements of Respiration rates of Marine Plankton Populations. pp357-389 In Heterotrophic Activity in the Sea ed J. E. Hobbie and Williams, P. J. le B. pp569 Plenum Publishing Corporation ,NY.

Williams, P. J. le B. and Muir, L (1981)
Diffusion as a constraint on the biological importance of microzones in the sea pp 209-218. In: Ecohydrodynamics, [Ed. Nihoul]. Elsevier

Williams, P. J. le B. (1980)
Primary productivity and heterotrophic activity in estuaries pp 243-258. In: River Inputs to Ocean Systems, SCOR Workshop, Rome. UNESCO, Paris

Williams, P. J. le B. (1980)
Microbial contribution to overall plankton community respiration studies in enclosures pp 305-321. In: Marine Microcosms, [Ed. Grice and Reeve], pp 430. Springer Verlag

Williams, P. J. le B. (1978)
Some aspects of microbial growth in estuaries pp 238-245. In: Biogeochemistry of Estuarine Sediments. Proc. UNESCO/ SCOR Workshop, Melreux, 1976. UNESCO pp 293

Williams, P. J. le B. (1975)
Analytical chemistry of sea water; determination of organic components pp 443-477. In: Chemical Oceanography Vol. 3, [Ed. J.P. Riley and G. Skirrow]. pp 564. Academic Press

Williams, P. J. le B. (1975)
Biological and chemical aspects of dissolved organic material in sea water pp 301-363. In: Chemical Oceanography Vol. 2, [Ed. J.P. Riley and G. Skirrow]. pp 647. Academic Press

Williams, P. J. le B. (1973)
On the question of growth yields of natural heterotrophic populations pp 399-400. In: Modern Methods in the Study of Microbial Ecology, [Ed. Roswall], Bull. Ecol. Res. Comm. (Stockholm), 197, Swedish Natural Science Research Council

Additional Publications

Pomeroy, L. R., Williams P. J. Le B., Azam, F. and Hobbie, J. E. (2007)
The Microbial Loop. Oceanography 20 28-33

Williams, P. J. Le B (2006)
An Appreciation of Alfred C. Redfield and his Scientific Work. Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin 15 53-70

Williams, P.J.leB. (2004)
Meters, kilograms, seconds, but no bomb units. A zero tolerance approach to units (with apologies to Lynne Truss). ASLO Bulletin, 13, 29-32.

Evans, G. L., Hardman- Mountford, N.J., Hartnoll, R.G., Kennington, K., Mitchelson-Jacob, E.G., Shammon, T. and Williams P. J. le B. (2003)
Long-term environmental studies in the Irish Sea: a review. Scientific Report No. 02. 17th November, 2003. Defra Contract CDEP 84/5/311, 20pp.

Evans, Gaynor L., Peter J. le B. Williams and Gay Mitchelson-Jacob (2001)
Interdecadal variability of nutrients in the Irish Sea. Report prepared for Marine Institute, Dublin, Ireland and the UK Environment Agency, NorthWest Region, UK, December 2001. 34pp.

Eglinton, G., Elderfield, H., Whitfield, M, and Williams, P. J. Le B. Editors (1995)
The Role of the North Atlantic in the Global Carbon Cycle. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 348 121-264

Jannasch, H W and Williams, P. J. Le B. (1985)
Co-editors Advances in Aquatic Microbiology, Volume 3, Academic Press, London

Hobbie, J E and Williams, P. J. Le B. (1984)
Co-editors Heterotrophic Activity in the Sea pp 569. Plenum Press, NY

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