Physiology and Pathophysiology
Run by School of Medical and Health Sciences
20.000 Credits or 10.000 ECTS Credits
Semester 1 & 2
Organiser: Dr Graham Clarke
Overall aims and purpose
This module introduces human anatomy and physiology and pathophysiology to students.
Physiology: This aspect of the module focuses on health and normal structure and function across the lifespan, including embryology and ageing. The taught sessions and learning materials will outline core principles of human anatomy and physiology, the cellular basis of those systems and this will link to the pathophysiology aspect of the module which will allow the student to develop knowledge and understanding of the following:
Pathophysiology: This aspect of the module brings together pathology (structural changes within diseased cells, tissues, organs and systems) and physiology seeking to explain the altered physiological processes or mechanisms which lead to the abnormal functioning of organs and result in the development and progression of a disease. Pathophysiology focuses on the abnormal functioning of diseased organs resulting from causes of disease/illness. This can include the acute and long-term progression and functional changes associated with, or resulting from disease and injury.
The course also contains elements of pharmacology and genetics.
The course content includes :
Anatomy and physiology
• Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology - Key terms, body cavities, positioning and surface anatomy • Cell biology - Cell structure, division, cell cycle & death (normal cell processes) • Homeostasis - Fluid compartments & movement, tissue fluid homeostasis, fluid volumes, hydrostatic pressure, pH (also in renal system) • Microbiology - Key organisms & terminology, structure & impact • Growth & development (from birth to end of life) - Systems regulating growth and development, impact of lifespan on body systems • Integumentary system/Skin - Structure & function, normal wound healing & thermoregulation • Respiratory system - Structure & function including respiratory terminology • Cardiovascular system - Structure & function • Haematological system - Structure & function • Lymphatic & Immune systems - Structure & function including immunisation, and inflammation as a normal response to injury or infection • Digestive & Hepatic systems - Structure & function including digestion and absorption • Renal system - Structure & function including urine output and kidney function across lifespan • Endocrine system - Structure & function • Nervous system – peripheral nervous system - Structure & function, peripheral nerves, meninges, reflexes (swallowing, defaecation, micturition, coughing) • Nervous system – central nervous system - Structure & function of the brain & spinal cord • Special senses - Structure & function, vision, taste/smell, hearing, touch • Pain perception • Muscular & Skeletal systems 1 – muscular system - Structure & function • Muscular & Skeletal systems 2 – skeleton - Structure & function, posture and movement • Nutrition & metabolism – key nutrients and nutritional requirements for health • Radiation protection – effect of radiation on cells and tissues, radiation safety • Genetics - simple dominant, recessive and sex-linked Inheritance
Pathophysiology; • Homeostatic mechanisms • Cell adaptations and death • Inflammation, immune response and healing. • Shock • cardiovascular and blood disorders • Respiratory, nervous system, gastrointestinal and nutritional disorders. • Endocrine, renal, bladder and fluid balance • Pain, musculoskeletal and skin disorders.
Pharmacology; • General pharmacological principles and application in practice. • Mechanisms of drug interactions • Variation effecting response • Basic pharmacology of commonly administered medicines.
A- to A* Grade: To achieve an ‘excellent pass’ on the module, students will be required to demonstrate comprehensive knowledge of and clear evidence of critical evaluation of the topics covered within the learning outcomes.
B- to B+ Grade: To achieve a ‘good pass’ the student will be required to demonstrate a very good knowledge of and critical evaluation of the topics covered within the learning outcomes.
C- to C+ Grade: To achieve a pass on the module, students will be required to demonstrate a good knowledge of and some critical evaluation of the topics covered within the learning outcomes.
Demonstrate an in-depth knowledge and understanding of human anatomy, human anatomical structure and physiological function and process, within normal physiological limits in the context of health across the lifespan.
Demonstrate an in-depth knowledge, critical understanding and application of general pharmacological principles to clinical practice and medicines administered (ESC 33, 36,38,40)
Apply and integrate knowledge and a critical understanding of the pathophysiological processes to clinical decision-making and to promote client understanding of their illness/disease.
|Presentation of case history||50.00|
Teaching and Learning Strategy
Workbook completion - 45 hours in Semester 1 & 2
Private study - 110 hours in Semester 1 and 2.
Lead lectures - 20 x 2 hour lectures in Semester 1 and 2 = 40 hours.
Supervision tutorials - 4 hours available in Semester 1 and 2.
Assignment workshop - 1 hour in Semester 1
- Literacy - Proficiency in reading and writing through a variety of media
- Numeracy - Proficiency in using numbers at appropriate levels of accuracy
- Self-Management - Able to work unsupervised in an efficient, punctual and structured manner. To examine the outcomes of tasks and events, and judge levels of quality and importance
- Exploring - Able to investigate, research and consider alternatives
- Information retrieval - Able to access different and multiple sources of information
- Inter-personal - Able to question, actively listen, examine given answers and interact sensitevely with others
- Critical analysis & Problem Solving - Able to deconstruct and analyse problems or complex situations. To find solutions to problems through analyses and exploration of all possibilities using appropriate methods, rescources and creativity.
- Presentation - Able to clearly present information and explanations to an audience. Through the written or oral mode of communication accurately and concisely.
- Argument - Able to put forward, debate and justify an opinion or a course of action, with an individual or in a wider group setting
- Self-awareness & Reflectivity - Having an awareness of your own strengths, weaknesses, aims and objectives. Able to regularly review, evaluate and reflect upon the performance of yourself and others
Resource implications for students
Specific Resource Implications for Students: Please give details of equipment or financial outlay required by students on this module. 1. Purchase of text books, pens and paper. 2. Photocopying and printing 3. Subscription to internet provider to access BU on-line catalogues and Blackboard from home residence.
Students will be advised to select an anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology book/s that suits their level of prior knowledge.
Nair M. & Peate I. (2015). Pathophysiology for Nurses at a glance. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.
Neal M.J. (2016). Medical Pharmacology at a glance. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.