Leadership in Context
Run by School of Medical and Health Sciences
20.000 Credits or 10.000 ECTS Credits
Semester 1 & 2
Organiser: Dr David Evans
Overall aims and purpose
This module explores the processes involved in leading and facilitating the implementation of change in health and social care.
Effective leadership is essential in health and social care to optimise organisational performance and quality of patient care.
Drawing on a range of theory and evidence, the module also examines the role of the organisation and wider context, as well as inter-professional teams in shaping how improvement and innovation is, or can be facilitated.
Overall, this module provides students with the opportunity to identify, apply and critically evaluate strategies and interventions to support improvements in the quality of health and social care.
Face to face session will be delivered where possible, but replaced by online sessions if Covid-19 requirements demand it.
The module will provide students with the opportunity to critically evaluate the organisation and wider contexts for improving quality in health and social care context from different theoretical and methodological perspectives.
The module content also provides students with the opportunity to identify, apply and critically evaluate strategies and interventions to support improvements in the quality of health and social care.
Through the use of action learning, students will be encouraged to reflect and learn from their own leadership challenges and facilitation skills employed in their professional work.
Topics may include:
- The use of theory and research from different professional fields and disciplines in the designing and facilitating improvements in health and social care settings.
- Examine evidence and evaluate leadership and management concepts and practice.
- Explore & evaluate the role of culture, value and beliefs in organisations including their role is securing change & improvement
- Examine the multiple perspectives in assessing and evaluating quality improvement and change, including how quality and risk are assessed and improvement measured
- Identify organisational characteristics and factors influential to addressing the issues of risk and quality
- The importance and role of multi-disciplinary and inter-professional teams
- Examine the strategic environment including the role of regulation, legislation and policy.
Threshold C grade, minimum 50% (pass)
- Demonstrate knowledge of key areas/principles.
- Have some, if only limited, evidence of background study.
- Be focused on the question (assessment brief) with only some irrelevant material and weaknesses in structure
- Attempt to present relevant and logical arguments.
- Not contain a large number of factual/computational errors.
- Describe major links between topics.
- Attempt to analyse and/or explain problems.
- Be free of major weaknesses in presentation and accuracy.
Good B grade, minimum 60% (merit)
- Demonstrate strong knowledge and understanding of most of the subject area.
- Demonstrate evidence of background study.
- Be well structured and focused.
- Contain coherently presented arguments.
- Be mostly free of factual/computational errors.
- Include some elements of original interpretation.
- Describe well known links between topics.
- Analyse and/or explain problems using existing methods/approaches
- Be presented to high standards with accurate communication.
Excellent A grade, minimum 70% (Distinction)
- Demonstrate comprehensive knowledge and detailed understanding of the subject area.
- Demonstrate extensive background study.
- Be well structured and highly focused.
- Contain logically presented and defended arguments.
- Be free of factual/computational errors.
- Include significant elements of original interpretation.
- Demonstrate an ability to identify, develop and present new links between topics.
- Include new approaches to analysing and/or explaining a problem.
- Be presented to very high standards with very accurate communication.
Analyse and critically discuss the contribution of a range of disciplines to the theory and practice of leading quality improvements in order for the student to be able to select the most appropriate tools to achieve improvement outcomes
Explore and critically review the management of change process involved in the delivery of improvements in order for the student to be able to lead change in the most appropriate manner and to realise the benefits from improvement
Review and critically evaluate techniques & tools employed in the process of leading quality and improvement in health and social care
Critically examine the student's own role, the role of other individuals, the organisation and wider context in shaping quality improvement in order to lead effectively and deliver quality improvements in service delivery
Evaluate the application of theory to demonstrate the practical skills necessary to lead the engagement of a multidisciplinary team in the improvement of health and social care in order for the student to have an understanding of the risks and risk management required to deliver effective, efficient and acceptable quality improvements
|SUMMATIVE THEORETICAL ASSMT||Critical analysis of leading change||
How can leadership improve care?
|INDIVIDUAL BLOG||Engagement in Leadership Discussion Boards||
Students will be provided with taught, directed learning material, and two online tutorials to discuss the six points below.
Via the discussion board on Blackboard, students will engage in a discsussion with peers about the issues raised.
Teaching and Learning Strategy
Lectures – class based and on-line for example, Panoptos
Face to face session may move to online groups if the Covid-19 regulations require
Individual and group presentations based on lectures and directed study group activities. Class based and on-line for example, via the VLE facility
Action Learning. Use of ITC to support group interaction e.g. blogs, on-line activities and discussion
Individual and group presentations based on lectures and directed study
Additional reading to support ALS Use of ITC e.g. blogs to develop arguments around specific course content
- Literacy - Proficiency in reading and writing through a variety of media
- Computer Literacy - Proficiency in using a varied range of computer software
- Self-Management - Able to work unsupervised in an efficient, punctual and structured manner. To examine the outcomes of tasks and events, and judge levels of quality and importance
- Exploring - Able to investigate, research and consider alternatives
- Information retrieval - Able to access different and multiple sources of information
- Inter-personal - Able to question, actively listen, examine given answers and interact sensitevely with others
- Critical analysis & Problem Solving - Able to deconstruct and analyse problems or complex situations. To find solutions to problems through analyses and exploration of all possibilities using appropriate methods, rescources and creativity.
- Presentation - Able to clearly present information and explanations to an audience. Through the written or oral mode of communication accurately and concisely.
- Teamwork - Able to constructively cooperate with others on a common task, and/or be part of a day-to-day working team
- Mentoring - Able to support, help, guide, inspire and/or coach others
- Caring - Showing concern for others; caring for children, people with disabilities and/or the elderly
- Management - Able to utilise, coordinate and control resources (human, physical and/or financial)
- Argument - Able to put forward, debate and justify an opinion or a course of action, with an individual or in a wider group setting
- Self-awareness & Reflectivity - Having an awareness of your own strengths, weaknesses, aims and objectives. Able to regularly review, evaluate and reflect upon the performance of yourself and others
- Leadership - Able to lead and manage, develop action plans and objectives, offer guidance and direction to others, and cope with the related pressures such authority can result in
Subject specific skills
Retrieve, source and select information including digital Information regarding health leadership from a variety of health or social care sources.
Critically appraise and interpret policies and legislative documents relevant to health leadership.
Manage complex issues in an organised and creative manner, make justifiable judgements in the absence of complete data, and communicate conclusions clearly to health and social care colleagues
Resource implications for students
Students will need access to the internet and to information and communication technology Study materials will be made available through the programme black board site, directly the module team or via Bangor University library.
Talis Reading listhttp://readinglists.bangor.ac.uk/modules/nhs-4380.html
Northouse, P. (2018). Introduction to leadership Concepts and Practice (4th ed). SAGE Publications
Storey, J., & Holti, R. (2013). Towards a New Model of Leadership for the NHS. Retrieved from https://www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Towards-a-New-Model-of-Leadership-2013.pdf
West, M., Armit, K., Loewenthal, L., Eckert, R., West, T., & Lee, A. (2015). Leadership and Leadership Development in Health Care: The Evidence Base. The Kings Fund, 1–36. https://doi.org/19022015
Yukl, G. (1999). An evaluation of conceptual weaknesses in transformational and charismatic leadership theories. Leadership Quarterly, 10(2), 285–305. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(99)00013-2
Stirk, S. and Sanderson, H. (2012) Creating person-centred organisations: strategies and tools for managing change in health, social care and the voluntary sector. London: Jessica Kingsley.
Hewitt-Taylor, J. (2013) Understanding and managing change in healthcare: a step by step guide. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan
Kotter J. P. (2012). Leading change. Boston: Harvard Business
Adair, J. (1997). Decision Making and Problem Solving. London: Institute of Personnel and Development.
Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders Strategies for Taking Charge.
Blake, R; Moulton, J. (1964). The Managerial Grid. Houston: Gulf.
Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. Harper & Row.
Carlyle, T. (1841). On heroes and hero worship and heroic in history. Boston MA: Adams.
Charlesworth, K., Maggie Jamieson, C., Professor Rachel Davey, A., & Colin Butler, D. D. (2016). Transformational change in healthcare: an examination of four case studies. https://doi.org/10.1071/AH15041
Collins, J. (2001). Good to Great : Why Some Companies Make the Leap and Others Don t. Harper Collins.
Daft, R. (2016). Management (12th ed). Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/38127481/Management_-_Richard_L._Daft
Davidoff, F., Dixon-Woods, M., Leviton, L., & Michie, S. (2015). Demystifying theory and its use in improvement. BMJ Quality and Safety, 24(3), 228–238. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjqs-2014-003627
Fayol, H. (1925). General and Industrial Management. London: Pitman and Sons.
Fielder, F. (1967). A theory of leadership effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Goetsch, D Davis, S. (2013). Quality Management for Organizational Excellence: Introduction to Total Quality. Retrieved from https://www.pearson.com/us/higher-education/product/Goetsch-Quality-Management-for-Organizational-Excellence-Introduction-to-Total-Quality-7th-Edition/9780132558983.html?tab=order
Greenleaf, R. K. (1977). Servant leadership : a journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness /. Paulist Press.
Hersey, P; Blanchard, K. (1969). Life-cycle theory of leadership. Training and Development Journal, 23(5), 26–34.
James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
Johnson, G. (1992). Managing strategic change- strategy, culture and action. Long Range Planning, 25(1), 28–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-6301(92)90307-N
Lewin, K. (1951). Field Theory in Social Sciences. New York: Harper & Row.
Lowe, K. B., Kroeck, K. G., & Sivasubramaniam, N. (1996). Effectiveness correlates of transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic review of the mlq literature. Leadership Quarterly, 7(3), 385–425. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(96)90027-2
Mannion, R., & Davies, H. (2018). Understanding organisational culture for healthcare quality improvement. BMJ (Online), 363(November), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k4907
Marquis, B; Hutson, L. (2012). Leadership and Management Function (Vol. 53).
McGergor, D. (1960). The human side of enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Rosener, J. B. (2011). America’s Competitive Secret: Women Managers. In America’s Competitive Secret: Women Managers. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195119145.001.0001
Schein, E. H. (1985). Organizational culture and leadership (1st ed). San Francisco : Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Spencer, H. (1873). Principles of Sociology. New York: Appleton and Company.
Vroom, V., & Jago, A. (1988). The new leadership. Eaglewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.