Behaviour Change Procedures
Run by School of Education and Human Development
20 Credits or 10 ECTS Credits
Semester 1 & 2
Organiser: Dr Marguerite Hoerger
Overall aims and purpose
This module explores many of the practical techniques used by behaviour analysts to affect positive behaviour change. The topics in this module will explore strategies to teach new skills and replace problem behaviours. The module builds on knowledge gained in XLP4041 and XLP4042.
The course will introduce the theoretical foundations of operant learning. The content is drawn from the BCBA Task List (5th Edition), Section 2: Applications , Content Areas G: Behaviour Change Procedures and H: Selecting and Implementing Interventions 1-5
1 Use positive and negative reinforcement procedures to strengthen behavior. 2 Use interventions based on motivating operations and discriminative stimuli. 3 Establish and use conditioned reinforcers. 4 Use stimulus and response prompts and fading (e.g., errorless, most-to-least, least-to-most, prompt delay, stimulus fading). 5 Use modeling and imitation training. 6 Use instructions and rules. 7 Use shaping. 8 Use chaining. 9 Use discrete-trial, free-operant, and naturalistic teaching arrangements. 10 Teach simple and conditional discriminations. 11 Use Skinner’s analysis to teach verbal behavior. 12 Use equivalence-based instruction. 13 Use the high-probability instructional sequence. 14 Use reinforcement procedures to weaken behavior (e.g., DRA, FCT, DRO, DRL, NCR). 15 Use extinction. 16 Use positive and negative punishment (e.g., time-out, response cost, overcorrection). 17 Use token economies. 18 Use group contingencies. 19 Use contingency contracting. 20 Use self-management strategies.G-21 Use procedures to promote stimulus and response generalisation. 22 Use procedures to promote maintenance. 23 State intervention goals in observable and measurable terms. 24 Identify potential interventions based on assessment results and the best available scientific evidence. 25 Recommend intervention goals and strategies based on such factors as client preferences, supporting environments, risks, constraints, and social validity. 26 When a target behavior is to be decreased, select an acceptable alternative behavior to be established or increased. 27 Plan for possible unwanted effects when using reinforcement, extinction, and punishment procedures.
Some insight into the applications of behaviourism in the real world. • Strong knowledge of key concepts in applied behaviour analysis. • Solid understanding of theoretical issues mostly free of factual errors. • Evidence of critical analysis and evaluation of theory and research. • Coherent arguments presented, with some limited synthesis and original interpretation • Answer focused on question, but with very little irrelevant material and clear structure • Well-structured presentation showing focus of argument and expression. Threshold 60%
Some basic consideration underpinning principles of the applications of behaviourism in the real world. • Adequate knowledge of some of the key concepts in applied behaviour analysis only. • Weaknesses in understanding theoretical issues with multiple/major factual errors. • Limited evidence of critical analysis and evaluation of theory and research. • Arguments are presented briefly, but they are weak with no synthesis or original interpretation. • Answer only briefly focused on question and with some irrelevant material and poor structure. • Weak argument with disjointed structure and major APA format errors. Threshold 50%
Depth of insight into behavioural principles underpinning the applications of behaviourism in the real world. • Comprehensive and detailed knowledge of applied behaviour analysis. • Excellent understanding and original interpretation of theoretical issues with no factual errors. • Clear evidence of critical analysis and insightful evaluation of theory and research. • Logically presented and defended arguments presented with coherent synthesis and original interpretation. • Answer focused on question, with no irrelevant material and clear structure. • Well-structured argument showing focus and clarity of argument and expression. Threshold 70%
Students will explain how they select techniques in clinical practice.
Students will critically analyse peer reviewed literature to inform the techniques they select in behaviour change procedures.
Students will consider how the foundations of behaviour analysis can be applied to facilitate meaningful behaviour change.
Students will explain how to conduct common behaviour change procedures in behaviour analysis to teach new behaviours and weaken problem behaviours.
Short answer and essay questions will be used to assess students' knowledge of how to select and conduct behaviour change procedures.
|ESSAY||Behaviour Change Essay||
Students will summarise and critically evaluate a total of 4 peer reviewed research papers that explore one topic relevant to behaviour change procedures.
Teaching and Learning Strategy
Lectures will be pre-recorded and students will be able to access the lectures at any time. The lecture time will include time spent reading and evaluating relevant papers, completing unmarked MCQ and interacting with an on-line community of students.
Students will be expected to complete the given readings and prepare for any in-class activities. Private study will also include exam preparation.
Seminars will run for 90 minutes every week for 8 weeks. Two seminar groups will be conducted; the content in each group will be same. The seminars will be delivered synchronous in person if allowed and also via a remote platform. Students will be able to choose which seminar group to attend. The seminars will be an opportunity for students to consider how to apply the information they learned in lectures to clinical practice. Seminars are optional and will not be recorded because we anticipate students may wish to discuss confidential, clinically relevant material.
- Literacy - Proficiency in reading and writing through a variety of media
- Numeracy - Proficiency in using numbers at appropriate levels of accuracy
- Computer Literacy - Proficiency in using a varied range of computer software
- Self-Management - Able to work unsupervised in an efficient, punctual and structured manner. To examine the outcomes of tasks and events, and judge levels of quality and importance
- Exploring - Able to investigate, research and consider alternatives
- Information retrieval - Able to access different and multiple sources of information
- Inter-personal - Able to question, actively listen, examine given answers and interact sensitevely with others
- Critical analysis & Problem Solving - Able to deconstruct and analyse problems or complex situations. To find solutions to problems through analyses and exploration of all possibilities using appropriate methods, rescources and creativity.
- Safety-Consciousness - Having an awareness of your immediate environment, and confidence in adhering to health and safety regulations
- Presentation - Able to clearly present information and explanations to an audience. Through the written or oral mode of communication accurately and concisely.
- Teamwork - Able to constructively cooperate with others on a common task, and/or be part of a day-to-day working team
- Mentoring - Able to support, help, guide, inspire and/or coach others
- Caring - Showing concern for others; caring for children, people with disabilities and/or the elderly
- Management - Able to utilise, coordinate and control resources (human, physical and/or financial)
- Argument - Able to put forward, debate and justify an opinion or a course of action, with an individual or in a wider group setting
- Self-awareness & Reflectivity - Having an awareness of your own strengths, weaknesses, aims and objectives. Able to regularly review, evaluate and reflect upon the performance of yourself and others
- Leadership - Able to lead and manage, develop action plans and objectives, offer guidance and direction to others, and cope with the related pressures such authority can result in
Subject specific skills
- Understand the scientific underpinnings of psychology as a discipline.
- Apply multiple perspectives to psychological issues and integrate ideas and findings across the multiple perspectives in psychology.
- Communicate psychological concepts effectively in written form.
- Communicate psychological concepts effectively in oral form.
- Be computer literate for the purpose of processing and disseminating psychological data and information.
- Retrieve and organise information effectively.
- Handle primary source material critically.
- Engage in effective teamwork for the purpose of collaborating on psychological projects.
- Be sensitive and react appropriately to contextual and interpersonal psychological factors.
- Use effectively personal planning and project management skills.
- Work effectively under pressure (time pressure, limited resources, etc) as independent and pragmatic learners.
- Problem-solve by clarifying questions, considering alternative solutions, making critical judgements, and evaluating outcomes.
- Reason scientifically and demonstrate the relationship between theory and evidence.
- Carry out empirical studies by operationalizing research questions, generating hypotheses, collecting data using a variety of methods, analysing data using quantitative and/or qualitative methods, and present and evaluate research findings (under appropriate supervision).
- Employ evidence-based reasoning and examine practical, theoretical and ethical issues associated with the use of different methodologies, paradigms and methods of analysis in psychology.
- Be aware of ethical principles and approval procedures.
Talis Reading listhttp://readinglists.bangor.ac.uk/modules/plp-4045.html
Core Text: Cooper, J.O., Heron, T.E., & Heward, W.L. 2nd Ed. (20020) Applied Behavior Analysis. NY. MacMillan. (3rd edition)
Courses including this module
Compulsory in courses:
- C8EB: PGDip Applied Behaviour Analysis year 1 (DIP/APPBA)
- C8BL: MSc Applied Behavioural Analysis year 1 (MSC/ABA)
- C8EN: MSc Applied Behaviour Analysis with Practicum year 1 (MSC/ABAP)
- C8EC: MSc Applied Behaviour Analysis year 1 (MSC/APPBA)