Run by School of Human and Behavioural Sciences
10.000 Credits or 5.000 ECTS Credits
Overall aims and purpose
Success in sport depends upon an athlete’s ability to develop and perfect a specific, and often unique, set of perceptual and motor skills. The so-called 10, 000 hr rule suggests it takes 10 years or 10,000 hours to attain these skills and reach an expert level. In this course, we will apply the critical role of practice and instruction into the learning of skills so we can understand how to coach adults and children towards expertise much faster than 10,000 hrs or 10 years. Throughout the course, we will address the implications of current expertise research on the coaching of instruction, practice, and feedback. We will address contemporary approaches to coaching from both cognitive and non-linear pedagogy frameworks.
The course is delivered by a UKCC Level 4 Coach, and talent development scientists working with leading sports organisations (e.g., UK Sport, EIS). Broadly speaking, the course is divided into two parts, in line with contemporary approaches to coaching. The first half of the course will cover cognitive approaches to coaching, and consider how to make demonstrations, instructions and feedback most effective, and how to optimise practice environments using varied practice design. In the second half of the module, we will examine non-linear pedagogy techniques and consider the use of constraints and representative practice design in coaching. Both sections have implications for how information and practice should be structured and organised to bring about effective learning and expertise development. Considerations regarding how task difficulty and expertise level impact on the effective development of expertise will be a central theme to each section.
Students should be able to present an outstanding in-depth critical discussion of the underlying theories and current research related to the learning process. They will demonstrate an in-depth awareness of contemporary coaching techniques (e.g., use of demonstrations, instructions and feedback, constraints, and representative practice design) and how to apply these effectively to enhance learning. In addition, they will be able to clearly explain how the issues/topics discussed are dependent on task, individual and environmental constraints and justify this using theory.
Students should be able to present a very good critical discussion of the underlying theories and current research related to the learning process. They will demonstrate a good awareness of contemporary coaching techniques (e.g., use of demonstrations, instructions and feedback, constraints, and representative practice design) and how to apply these effectively to enhance learning. In addition, they will be able to explain how the issues/topics discussed are dependent on task, individual and environmental constraints and justify this using theory.
Students should be able to present an adequate or basic understanding of the underlying theories and current research related to the learning process. They will demonstrate a superficial awareness of some contemporary coaching techniques (e.g., use of demonstrations, instructions and feedback, constraints, and representative practice design) and how to apply these to enhance learning. In addition, they will be aware of how the issues/topics discussed are dependent on task, individual and environmental constraints, but perhaps not fully able to support arguments with relevant theory. There may also be occasional inaccuracies and irrelevant content.
Identify learning challenges of coach and athlete in relation to individual, task, and environmental constraints.
Understand and be able to critique underlying theories of skill acquisition.
Apply skill acquisition techniques to the coaching process to enhance learning.
Be able to communicate contemporary approaches to skill acquisition to support applied practitioners.
Teaching and Learning Strategy
Private study will consist of individual reading time, preparing and completing assessments.
Class time will consist of a combination of lectures, individual exercises, group discussions and formative assignment practice.
- Literacy - Proficiency in reading and writing through a variety of media
- Self-Management - Able to work unsupervised in an efficient, punctual and structured manner. To examine the outcomes of tasks and events, and judge levels of quality and importance
- Exploring - Able to investigate, research and consider alternatives
- Information retrieval - Able to access different and multiple sources of information
- Inter-personal - Able to question, actively listen, examine given answers and interact sensitevely with others
- Critical analysis & Problem Solving - Able to deconstruct and analyse problems or complex situations. To find solutions to problems through analyses and exploration of all possibilities using appropriate methods, rescources and creativity.
- Presentation - Able to clearly present information and explanations to an audience. Through the written or oral mode of communication accurately and concisely.
- Teamwork - Able to constructively cooperate with others on a common task, and/or be part of a day-to-day working team
- Mentoring - Able to support, help, guide, inspire and/or coach others
- Caring - Showing concern for others; caring for children, people with disabilities and/or the elderly
- Argument - Able to put forward, debate and justify an opinion or a course of action, with an individual or in a wider group setting
- Self-awareness & Reflectivity - Having an awareness of your own strengths, weaknesses, aims and objectives. Able to regularly review, evaluate and reflect upon the performance of yourself and others
- Leadership - Able to lead and manage, develop action plans and objectives, offer guidance and direction to others, and cope with the related pressures such authority can result in
Subject specific skills
- research and assess paradigms, theories, principles, concepts and factual information, and apply such skills in explaining and solving problems
- critically assess and evaluate data and evidence in the context of research methodologies and data sources
- describe, synthesise, interpret, analyse and evaluate information and data relevant to a professional or vocational context
- plan, design, execute and communicate a sustained piece of independent intellectual work, which provides evidence of critical engagement with, and interpretation of, appropriate data
- apply knowledge to the solution of familiar and unfamiliar problems
- develop a sustained reasoned argument, perhaps challenging previously held assumptions
- demonstrate effective written and/or oral communication and presentation skills
- work effectively independently and with others
- take and demonstrate responsibility for their own learning and continuing personal and professional development
- self-appraise and reflect on practice
- plan and design practical activities using appropriate techniques and procedures whilst demonstrating high levels of relevant skills
- demonstrate an understanding of the philosophical basis of scientific paradigms
- develop transferable skills of relevance to careers outside of sport, health and exercise sciences.
- communicate succinctly at a level appropriate to different audiences.
- develop justifiable and/or evidence-based interventions
Talis Reading listhttp://readinglists.bangor.ac.uk/modules/jxh-2057.html
Core/essential reading Hanford, C., Davids, K., Bennett, S., & Button, C. (1997). Skill acquisition in sport: Some applications of an evolving practice ecology. Journal of Sports Sciences, 15, 621-640. Williams, M. A., & Hodges, N.J. (2005). Practice, instruction and skill acquisition in soccer: Challenging tradition. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(6): 637-650. Wulf, G., & Shea, C. (2002). Principles derived from the study of simple skills do not generalize to complex skill learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9 (2), 185-211. Wulf, G. (2007). Attentional focus and motor learning: A review of 10 years of research. E-Journal Bewegung und Training 1, 4-14. Wulf, G. (2013). Attentional focus and motor learning: A review of 15 years. International review of Sport and Exercise Psychology 6(1), 77-104. Lawrence, G.P., Kingston, K., & Gottwald, V. M. Skill acquisition for coaches (2013). In R. Jones., K. Kingston., & M. Hughes (Eds). An introduction to coaching (pp 31-47). New York: Routledge. Lawrence, G.P., Cassell, V., Beattie, S., Woodman, T., Gottwald, V.M., Khan, M.A., & Hardy, L. (2013). Practice with anxiety improves performance, but only when anxious: Evidence for the specificity of practice hypothesis. Psychological Research, 78(5), 634-650
Courses including this module
Compulsory in courses:
- C617: BSc Sport Science, PE & Coaching year 2 (BSC/SSCPE)
- C64P: BSc Sport Science, PE and Coaching with Placement Year year 2 (BSC/SSCPEP)
- C618: BSc Sport Sci: Strength & Conditioning year 2 (BSC/SSSC)
- C65P: BSc Sport Science: Strength & Conditioning with Placement Yr year 2 (BSC/SSSCP)
- C621: MSci Sport & Exercise Science year 2 (MSCI/SES)