Clinical Decision Making
Run by School of Health Sciences
20 Credits or 10 ECTS Credits
Semester 1 & 2
Organiser: Dr Elizabeth Mason
Overall aims and purpose
This module will enable students to develop the ability and knowledge to become critical reflective practitioners who are able to critically appraise and then apply appropriate research/evidence to practice. Students will critically evaluate the usefulness of research and evidence as an integral feature of professional practice. The module will enable students to utilise the knowledge and skills to critically appraise and evaluate evidence and utilise to inform clinical decision making. The module will be delivered using a blended approach with on-line lectures, teaching and learning activities and group work.
This module will provide students with knowledge of the following topics:
• Sources of knowledge and evidence
• Hierarchy of evidence
• Art and science of nursing / Benner’s ways of knowing
• Identifying research questions PICO/PEO/SPIDER
• Literature data bases and systematic search strategies
• Developing critical appraisal skills – using critical appraisal tools
• Research vs. audit and service evaluation
• Research process
• Methodology design – epistemology, ontology and philosophical principles of quantitative and qualitative methodologies to gain new knowledge
• Data collection methods for qualitative and quantitative research
• Sample selection and participants
• Rigour, validity and reliability
• Data analysis for quantitative and qualitative methods,
• Research ethics
• Implementation research
• Barriers and enablers to implementing evidence based practice in the NHS • Decision making and clinical judgements, technical rationality.
A- to A* Grade: To achieve an ‘excellent pass’ on the module, students will be required to demonstrate comprehensive knowledge and critical evaluation of the underlying principles of reflective practice, research methodologies and methods used to develop evidence based practice and support clinical decision making.
C- to C+ Grade: To achieve a ‘pass’ on the module, students will be required to demonstrate good understanding and some critical evaluation of the underlying principles of reflective practice, research methodologies and methods used to develop evidence based practice and support clinical decision making.
B- to B+ Grade: To achieve a ‘good pass’ the student will be required to demonstrate sound knowledge and critical evaluation of the underlying principles of reflective practice, research methodologies and methods used to develop evidence based practice and support clinical decision making.
Critically evaluate research methodologies, methods and developing new knowledge to support evidence based practice.
Critically appraise the hierarchy of knowledge used to support the art and science of nursing.
Conduct a systematic search of the literature relevant to practice and critically analyse sources of evidence.
Critically evaluate the interpersonal, clinical reasoning, and decision making skills necessary for implementing person-centred evidence care.
Critique, synthesise and apply relevant research evidence to the implementation of patient care.
|SUMMATIVE THEORETICAL ASSMT||Mini systematic review based on a focused question||
The student will identify a research question based on an issue identified from practice placement learning and provide a systematic review of the literature using the mini systematic review approach.
Teaching and Learning Strategy
Private study for reading, assignment preparation and writing.
Lead lectures = 10 x 2 hour taught sessions
Seminars/tutorial activities = 10 x 1 hour seminars
Assignment workshop = 2 hours for review of assessment requirements and 3 x 1 hour supervision workshops.
Research workbook completion.
On-line learning activity - participation in 10 x 30 minute on-line activities focused on research methods.
- Literacy - Proficiency in reading and writing through a variety of media
- Numeracy - Proficiency in using numbers at appropriate levels of accuracy
- Computer Literacy - Proficiency in using a varied range of computer software
- Self-Management - Able to work unsupervised in an efficient, punctual and structured manner. To examine the outcomes of tasks and events, and judge levels of quality and importance
- Exploring - Able to investigate, research and consider alternatives
- Information retrieval - Able to access different and multiple sources of information
- Inter-personal - Able to question, actively listen, examine given answers and interact sensitevely with others
- Critical analysis & Problem Solving - Able to deconstruct and analyse problems or complex situations. To find solutions to problems through analyses and exploration of all possibilities using appropriate methods, rescources and creativity.
- Presentation - Able to clearly present information and explanations to an audience. Through the written or oral mode of communication accurately and concisely.
- Argument - Able to put forward, debate and justify an opinion or a course of action, with an individual or in a wider group setting
- Self-awareness & Reflectivity - Having an awareness of your own strengths, weaknesses, aims and objectives. Able to regularly review, evaluate and reflect upon the performance of yourself and others
Resource implications for students
1. Purchase of text books, pens and paper. 2. Photocopying and printing 3. Subscription to internet provider to access BU on-line catalogues and Blackboard from home residence.
Beauchamp, T.L. & Childress, J.F. (2010). Principles of Biomedical Ethics 6th Edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bowling, A. (2014). Research Methods in Health and Social Care: Investigating Health and Health Services 4th Edn. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Bryman, A. (2012). Social Research Methods 4th Edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Creswell, J.W. (2014) A Concise Introduction to Mixed Method Research. London: Sage Publications.
Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y.S. (2017). The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research 5th edn. London: Sage Publications.
Ellis, P. (2013). Evidence-based Practice in Nursing 2nd Edn. Exeter: LearningMatters.
Green, J. & Thorogood, N. (2013). Qualitative Methods for Health Research 3rd Edn. London: Sage. Publications
Gough, D. (2017). An Introduction to Systematic Review 2nd Edn. London: Sage Publications.
Harvey, M. & Land, L. (2016). Research Methods for Nurses and Midwives: Theory and Practice. London: Sage Publications.
McIntosh-Scott, A. Mason, T. Mason-Whitehead, E. Coyle, D. (2014). Key Concepts in Nursign and Health Research. London: Sag Publications.
Rolfe, G. Jasper M., & Freshwater, D. (2011). Critical Reflection in Practice: Generating Knowledge for Care 2nd Edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Silverman, D. (2016). Qualitative Research 4th Edn. London: Sage Publications.
Tashakkori, A. & Teddlie, C. (2010) Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behaviour Research. Sage Publications, London.
Mallion, J. & Brooke, J. (2016). Community- and hospital- based nurses' implementation of evidence-based practice: are there any differences? British Journal of Community Nursing, 21 (3), 148-153. http://web.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.bangor.ac.uk/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=412311bd-0e1d-4f10-a220-80091e5d60a2%40sessionmgr104&vid=2&hid=115
Rycroft-Malone, J. & Bucknall, T. (Eds). (2010). Models and Frameworks for implementing Evidence-Based Practice. Chichester, Wiley-Blackwell.
Denzin, N.K. (2009). The elephant in the living room: or extending the conversation about the politics of evidence. Qualitative Research. 9(2),139-160. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1468794108098034
Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) http://www.casp-uk.net/
Clinical Research Centre http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/home.cfm?orgid=580
e-Library for Health http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sitesplus/878/home
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence http://www.nice.org.uk/
NHS Wales http://www.wales.nhs.uk/
Nursing & Midwifery Council http://www.nmc-uk.org/
Public Health Wales http://www.publichealthwales.wales.nhs.uk/