Module PPP-4023:
Adv. Neuroimaging Concepts

Module Facts

Run by School of Psychology

10 Credits or 5 ECTS Credits

Semester 1

Organiser: Dr Paul Mullins

Overall aims and purpose

This course provides an extensive overview of mainly MR based imaging techniques used to study the structure, connectivity and metabolism of the brain. Basic anatomic and physiological concepts pertinent to the understanding of these techniques are also introduced, such as the physiological principles underlining the measurement and regulation of cerebral blood flow and neural metabolism. Several techniques are overviewed and their respective value and limitations highlighted though discussion of seminal papers. These are presented in a Journal Club format by both faculty and students. Given that most of these techniques find application in the detection and characterisation of pathological changes in the brain, applications to the study of disease processes is emphasised, although significant time is also devoted to illustrating techniques mainly used in basic Cognitive Neuroscience. The ethical implications that are raised by modern neuroimaging techniques and findings will also be discussed when pertinent.

Course content

  1. Neurophysiological basal of the BOLD signal.

  2. Functional connectivity. Neuro-physiological correlates of slow BOLD fluctuations and spatial BOLD coherence. Analysis of BOLD coherence: correlation and independent components analysis. Pre-processing issues. Effective connectivity, theoretical underpinnings and analytical limitations. Ethical considerations of the possibility o detect psychiatric diseases due to early changes in connectivity are raised.

  3. Structural Imaging. T1 and T2 contrast and the use of multi-spectral imaging for tissue classification. Image data representation, e.g. volumetric vs. surface based. Assessing severity and extension of lesions. Assessing disease processes.

  4. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Physical principles. Grey and white matter diffusion characteristics. Application of DTI to estimation of Wallerian degeneration, white matter injury, fibre tracking.

  5. Perfusion imaging. Overview of non-MR based techniques for estimation of cerebral blood flow. MR perfusion: contrast based vs. non-contrast based estimation of local cerebral blood flood.

  6. Spectroscopy. Physical principles. Basic biochemistry of cerebral metabolism. Applications of spectroscopy to the study of metabolic disorders. Principles of analysis and technical limitations.

  7. MRI for medical discovery. Establishing MR correlates of disease processes. Voxel Based Morphometry. Multivariate techniques.

  8. Ethical implications regarding incidental findings, and possible impact of advanced techniques are introduced and discussed. Discussion will include the ethical implications that arise from the ability to map brain pathways, patterns and metrics of neural connectedness and how these measures may be used in diagnosis, the potential for incidental findings of clinical importance in research participants and how to deal with these findings, and the wider implications of neuroimaging findings and how it may be applied in the wider community.

Assessment Criteria

excellent

Links to A grades Comprehensive knowledge • Detailed understanding of the subject area • Extensive background study • Highly focused answer & well-structured • Logically presented & defended arguments • No factual/computa3onal errors • Original interpreta3on • New links to topic are presented • New approach to a problem • Excellent presenta3on with very accurate communica3on

good

Links to B grades Strong Knowledge • Understands most but not all of subject area • Evidence of background study • Focused answer with good structure • Arguments presented coherently • Mostly free of factual/computational errors • Some limited original interpretation • Well known links described between topics • Problems addressed by existing methods/approaches • Good presentation, accurate communication

threshold

Links to C grades • Knowledge of key areas/principles only • Limited evidence of background study • Answer only poorly focused on question & with some irrelevant material & poor structure • Attempts to present relevant and coherent arguments • Has several factual/computational errors • No original interpretation • Only major links between topic are described • Limited problem solving • Many weaknesses in presentation & accuracy

Learning outcomes

  1. 1) Knowledge of imaging relevant aspects of neuroanatomy, neurophysiology and neuropathology;

  2. 2) Understanding the physical principles underlying structural, functional and metabolic MRI.

  3. 4) Ability to understand and summarise scientific findings reported in the peer-reviewed literature.

  4. 5) Ability to choose proper analytic tool to determine MR correlates of disease markers

  5. 3) Devleop an understanding of how imaging protocols and techniques can be used to study a specific cognitive, physiological or disease process.

Assessment Methods

Type Name Description Weight
Participation in Class 10
Weekly presentations and Seminars 30
Final exam 60

Teaching and Learning Strategy

Hours
Seminar

weekly Lecture/Seminar

  1. Student lead discussion - weekly

  2. Peer to peer assessment - weekly

33
Private study 67

Transferable skills

  • Literacy - Proficiency in reading and writing through a variety of media
  • Self-Management - Able to work unsupervised in an efficient, punctual and structured manner. To examine the outcomes of tasks and events, and judge levels of quality and importance
  • Exploring - Able to investigate, research and consider alternatives
  • Information retrieval - Able to access different and multiple sources of information
  • Inter-personal - Able to question, actively listen, examine given answers and interact sensitevely with others
  • Critical analysis & Problem Solving - Able to deconstruct and analyse problems or complex situations. To find solutions to problems through analyses and exploration of all possibilities using appropriate methods, rescources and creativity.
  • Presentation - Able to clearly present information and explanations to an audience. Through the written or oral mode of communication accurately and concisely.
  • Argument - Able to put forward, debate and justify an opinion or a course of action, with an individual or in a wider group setting

Subject specific skills

  • Understand the scientific underpinnings of psychology as a discipline.
  • Apply multiple perspectives to psychological issues and integrate ideas and findings across the multiple perspectives in psychology.
  • Communicate psychological concepts effectively in oral form.
  • Be computer literate for the purpose of processing and disseminating psychological data and information.
  • Retrieve and organise information effectively.
  • Handle primary source material critically.
  • Use effectively personal planning and project management skills.
  • Work effectively under pressure (time pressure, limited resources, etc) as independent and pragmatic learners.
  • Reason scientifically and demonstrate the relationship between theory and evidence.
  • Understand and investigate the role of brain function in all human behaviour and experience.
  • Comprehend and use psychological data effectively, demonstrating a systematic knowledge of the application and limitations of various research paradigms and techniques.
  • Employ evidence-based reasoning and examine practical, theoretical and ethical issues associated with the use of different methodologies, paradigms and methods of analysis in psychology.
  • Be aware of ethical principles and approval procedures.

Resources

Reading list

  1. Logothetis, Nikos K., et al. "Neurophysiological investigation of the basis of the fMRI signal." Nature 412.6843 (2001): 150.
  2. Logothetis, Nikos K., et al. "Hippocampal–cortical interaction during periods of subcortical silence." Nature 491.7425 (2012): 547.
  3. Conner, Christopher R., et al. "Variability of the relationship between electrophysiology and BOLD-fMRI across cortical regions in humans." Journal of Neuroscience 31.36 (2011): 12855-12865.

  4. Mintun, Mark A., et al. "Blood flow and oxygen delivery to human brain during functional activity: theoretical modeling and experimental data." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98.12 (2001): 6859-6864.

  5. Vaishnavi, S. Neil, et al. "Regional aerobic glycolysis in the human brain." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107.41 (2010): 17757-17762.

  6. Fox, Michael D., et al. "The human brain is intrinsically organized into dynamic, anticorrelated functional networks." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102.27 (2005): 9673-9678.

  7. Mantini, Dante, et al. "Electrophysiological signatures of resting state networks in the human brain." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104.32 (2007): 13170-13175.

  8. Diana, Rachel A., Andrew P. Yonelinas, and Charan Ranganath. "High‐resolution multi‐voxel pattern analysis of category selectivity in the medial temporal lobes." Hippocampus 18.6 (2008): 536-541.

  9. Haxby, James V., et al. "Distributed and overlapping representations of faces and objects in ventral temporal cortex." Science 293.5539 (2001): 2425-2430.

  10. Buckner, Randy L., et al. "Molecular, structural, and functional characterization of Alzheimer's disease: evidence for a relationship between default activity, amyloid, and memory." Journal of Neuroscience 25.34 (2005): 7709-7717.

  11. Brier, Mathew R., et al. "Loss of intranetwork and internetwork resting state functional connections with Alzheimer's disease progression." Journal of Neuroscience 32.26 (2012): 8890-8899.

  12. Song, Chen, et al. "Human occipital and parietal GABA selectively influence visual perception of orientation and size." Journal of Neuroscience (2017): 3945-16.

  13. Yazdani, Partow, et al. "Assessment of epilepsy using noninvasive visual psychophysics tests of surround suppression." Physiological reports 5.5 (2017).

  14. Birur, Badari, et al. "Brain structure, function, and neurochemistry in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder—a systematic review of the magnetic resonance neuroimaging literature." npj Schizophrenia 3.1 (2017): 15.

  15. Harari, Julia H., et al. "The association between gene variants and longitudinal structural brain changes in psychosis: a systematic review of longitudinal neuroimaging genetics studies." NPJ schizophrenia 3.1 (2017): 40.

  16. Mori, Susumu, and Jiangyang Zhang. "Principles of diffusion tensor imaging and its applications to basic neuroscience research." Neuron 51.5 (2006): 527-539.

  17. De Schotten, Michel Thiebaut, et al. "A lateralized brain network for visuospatial attention." Nature neuroscience 14.10 (2011): 1245.

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Pre- and Co-requisite Modules

Courses including this module

Compulsory in courses:

Optional in courses: