Nudges and Behaviour Change
Run by School of Human and Behavioural Sciences
20.000 Credits or 10.000 ECTS Credits
Organiser: Dr Gareth Harvey
Overall aims and purpose
Over the past few decades, psychologists, economists and others in the behavioural sciences have started to find considerable evidence that many of our decisions are made using our "gut instincts" or emotions, rather than the rational cost benefit analysis that economists have traditional proposed. In parallel, other work has shown that our specific choices and behaviours (from what products we choose to buy or whether we choose to invest in a pension scheme) can be influenced by the way in which information is framed, presented or otherwise contextualised. Related work has looked at how we can shape or modify behaviours in both the short term (e.g. get people to take the stairs instead of the lift) or the long term (e.g. get people to make healthier food or lifestyle choices). In this module, we will take a problem-based learning approach and examine these and related phenomena. Students will learn by actively addressing challenges presented in a progressively more complex and challenging way.
Topics covered in this module will include essential models of behaviour change and contemporary techniques developed to engender and support change. Students will not only develop a detailed theoretical knowledge of this domain, they will also apply their knowledge to address real-world challenges. The module is interactive and will involve traditional lectures, group work and group assignments. Each week will comprise a traditional two-hour lecture developed by the Module Organiser and a weekly seminar. The seminars will adopt a problem-based approach to learning. Before the start of each seminar students will be given background reading to complete. Then based on this reading and the previous lecture students will be expected to tackle a brief and develop a new intervention. The content of the lectures will include:
- Prospect Theory
- Social Norms
- Loss Aversion
- Message Framing
- Status Quo Bias
- Paradox of Choice
- Psychology of Pricing
- Hyperbolic Discounting
- Choice Architecture
- Type 1 & Type 2 Decision Making
- Temporal Dimensions
- Principle of Reciprocity
Students will have a superficial understanding of behaviour change, although this is likely to be largely based on the lecture material. No credible evidence of synthesising information from a range of different sources and students are likely to struggle to apply academic models and frameworks to an applied context. Answers will have a basic structure although the student’s argument is likely to contain a number of flaws in logic.
Students will have a good understanding of most areas of behaviour change, demonstrating some reading beyond the lecture material. Students will attempt to synthesise information from a range of different sources, although key details may be missed. Students will attempt to analyse academic research, and apply the research in an applied context although the analysis is likely to lack critical insight. Answers will have a clear structure with a reasonably coherent argument throughout.
Students will have an extensive understanding of all areas of behaviour change, demonstrating extensive reading beyond the lecture material, synthesising information from a range of different sources. Students will be able to critically analyse research based on its academic merit and discuss the relevance of this research in an applied context. Answers will be well structured with a compelling and coherent argument throughout..
Understand and evaluate theory, techniques and models of behaviour change including when to apply them appropriately.
Consider and appreciate the role of technology in supporting behaviour change.
Understand and apply systematic design processes to create effective change interventions.
Demonstrate the critical ability to design, develop and apply appropriate behaviour change interventions to real-world challenges and scenarios.
|COURSEWORK||Unit 1: Design your own Model of Behaviour||
A newly founded charity, “Love For All”, has approached you in order to learn more about human behaviour. Their volunteers have a diverse range of experiences, but currently they don’t have any volunteers with a background in psychology. In order to help improve their marketing and fundraising activates, they have asked you to develop a simple yet comprehensive model of human behaviour. You will need to research existing theories and models and collate the relevant theories into one novel model (presented as a figure). In order to explain your model they have also asked you to write a short synopsis explaining what theory(ies) you have used and why you think it is relevant to behaviour change.
|REPORT||Unit 2: Interventions||
You have applied for a job with the Behavioural Insights Team (aka the Nudge Unit). As part of the interview process they have given you two briefs. You have been asked to tackle ONE of the two briefs, and develop a plausible intervention. Brief 1: Increase Blood Donations Level. The NHS Blood and Transplant Unit (NHSBT) is the organisation responsible for blood and organ donation in the UK. Although they are always looking for initiatives to increase blood donations, in 2015 it was announced that 204,000 new volunteers are needed to ensure that the UKs bloodstocks remain at a safe level for the future. Unless there is a big shift in the behaviour of the general public this situation is unlikely to change. In 2015, 40% fewer new volunteers came forward across England and North Wales to give blood last year compared to a decade ago.
As a result of this NHSBT are looking at how behavioural economics and behaviour change techniques can be used to increase both the number of people who donate blood and the frequency in which people donate blood. For a quick introduction to the topic see: https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/jun/05/sharp-drop-new-blood-donors-uk-stocks-at-risk Brief 2: Reducing meat consumption. The scientific consensus is that the Earth's climate system is unequivocally warming, and that it is extremely likely that this warming is predominantly caused by humans. Yet despite this consensus, agreeing what to do about this has proved to be a challenge. While energy generation, transport and buildings have long been a target for governments, businesses and campaigners looking to reduce emissions, the impact from food production has often been left out. But on current trends, with intensive agriculture increasingly geared towards livestock rearing, food production will be a major concern. In three decades, emissions related to agriculture and food production are likely to account for about half of the world’s available “carbon budget” - there is limited amount of carbon dioxide and its equivalents that can be poured into the atmosphere if we are to hold global warming to no more than 2C.
In order to help reduce CO2 omissions, Brighton City Council are exploring techniques that can be used to decrease the amount of meat local residents eat. This is because it has been shown that shifting to a mostly vegetarian diet, or even simply cutting down meat consumption to within accepted health guidelines, would make a large dent in greenhouse gases. Adhering to health guidelines on meat consumption could cut global food-related emissions by nearly a third by 2050, the study found, while widespread adoption of a vegetarian diet would bring down emissions by 63%. Brighton City Council’s ultimate goal is to have a meat free city by 2030, but as a first step they asked you to look into limiting the amount of meat eaten per week. See:
|EXAM||Unit 3 - Nudgeathon||
It's Nudgement Day! A final test of your knowledge of behaviour change theory and application. You’ll be given an unseen brief set by an organisation and you’ve got 8-hours to propose a solution in the form of a research proposal. During this time you can use any resources you like including: text books, lecture notes and the Internet Your answers will be assessed based on the following criteria: Response to the topic: Does the proposal address the problems described in the topic?
Teaching and Learning Strategy
Each week comprises of a 2-hour lecture and a 2- hour seminar. The lectures provide you with the theoretical content, but the teaching team recognise that lecturing can be very passive and even a little dull. Consequently, the seminars will include a range of exercises and scenarios enabling you to put your theoretical knowledge into practice. In order to help you prepare for the seminar you are expected to complete the background reading.
As this is a 20 credit module, there is an expectation that students will spend 200 hours of engagement and learning over the course of the Semester. Private study and will form a key aspect of student learning, progression and success in the module. The problem-based nature of the module requires commitment and appropriate effort in order for the most to be gained from the learning experience.
Each week comprises of a 2-hour lecture and a one hour seminar. The lectures provide you with the theoretical content, but the teaching team recognise that lecturing can be very passive and even a little dull. Consequently, the seminars will include a range of exercises and scenarios enabling you to put your theoretical knowledge into practice. In order to help you prepare for the seminar you are expected to complete the background reading.
- Literacy - Proficiency in reading and writing through a variety of media
- Computer Literacy - Proficiency in using a varied range of computer software
- Self-Management - Able to work unsupervised in an efficient, punctual and structured manner. To examine the outcomes of tasks and events, and judge levels of quality and importance
- Exploring - Able to investigate, research and consider alternatives
- Information retrieval - Able to access different and multiple sources of information
- Inter-personal - Able to question, actively listen, examine given answers and interact sensitevely with others
- Critical analysis & Problem Solving - Able to deconstruct and analyse problems or complex situations. To find solutions to problems through analyses and exploration of all possibilities using appropriate methods, rescources and creativity.
- Presentation - Able to clearly present information and explanations to an audience. Through the written or oral mode of communication accurately and concisely.
- Teamwork - Able to constructively cooperate with others on a common task, and/or be part of a day-to-day working team
- Mentoring - Able to support, help, guide, inspire and/or coach others
- Argument - Able to put forward, debate and justify an opinion or a course of action, with an individual or in a wider group setting
- Self-awareness & Reflectivity - Having an awareness of your own strengths, weaknesses, aims and objectives. Able to regularly review, evaluate and reflect upon the performance of yourself and others
- Leadership - Able to lead and manage, develop action plans and objectives, offer guidance and direction to others, and cope with the related pressures such authority can result in
Subject specific skills
- Understand the scientific underpinnings of psychology as a discipline.
- Apply multiple perspectives to psychological issues and integrate ideas and findings across the multiple perspectives in psychology.
- Communicate psychological concepts effectively in written form.
- Communicate psychological concepts effectively in oral form.
- Be computer literate for the purpose of processing and disseminating psychological data and information.
- Retrieve and organise information effectively.
- Handle primary source material critically.
- Engage in effective teamwork for the purpose of collaborating on psychological projects.
- Be sensitive and react appropriately to contextual and interpersonal psychological factors.
- Use effectively personal planning and project management skills.
- Work effectively under pressure (time pressure, limited resources, etc) as independent and pragmatic learners.
- Problem-solve by clarifying questions, considering alternative solutions, making critical judgements, and evaluating outcomes.
- Reason scientifically and demonstrate the relationship between theory and evidence.
- Comprehend and use psychological data effectively, demonstrating a systematic knowledge of the application and limitations of various research paradigms and techniques.
- Employ evidence-based reasoning and examine practical, theoretical and ethical issues associated with the use of different methodologies, paradigms and methods of analysis in psychology.
- Be aware of ethical principles and approval procedures.
Resource implications for students
None - although students may choose to buy the core textbook.
Talis Reading listhttp://readinglists.bangor.ac.uk/modules/ppp-4017.html
- Hardman D. (2009). Judgement and Decision Making: Psychological Perspectives. Chichester, U.K.: BPS Blackwell.
- Wendel, S. (2013) Designing for behaviour change: Applying psychology and behavioural economics. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly.
- Ariely, D. (2008) Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces that Shape Our Decisions. London: HarperCollins
- Gladwell, M. (2005). Blink: The power of thinking without thinking. New York, N.Y.: Little, Brown and Co.
- Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking Fast and Slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux
- Spotswood F. (eds). (2016). Beyond behaviour change: Key issues, interdisciplinary approaches and future directions. London: Policy Press.
- Thaler, R. H. (2016). Misbehaving the making of behavioural economics. London: Penguin Books.
- Thaler, R.H., & Sunstein, C.R. (2008). Nudge: Improving Decision about Health, Wealth, and Happiness. New Haven: Yale University Press