A group of elephants standing close together, seen from the front at close range.

Orphaned elephants struggle to assess the threat posed by roaring lions

Traumatic events coupled with the lack of experienced adults in elephant family groups can affect the ecological knowledge of younger animals, and ultimately their ability to make crucial decisions when faced with threatening situations.

These findings have implications for the conservation of long-lived social animals, such as elephants, primates and cetaceans.

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