Dr Jessica Clapham

Dr Jessica Clapham
Senior Fellow, Higher Education Academy
MA TEFL Course Director, School of Linguistics and English Language
01248 383088
Dinas 103, Normal Site, School of Education and Human Development


I joined Bangor University in 1994. I am a Lecturer in English in Education at the School of Education and Human Development and Course Director for the part-time MA TEFL and Deputy Course Director for the part time MA In Education. I was educated in Bangor and Cardiff University, where I gained a BA in English Literature and an MA in Applied Linguistics. I received my doctorate at Exeter University. I have taught in Sudan and China and provided consultancy and literacy training in Jamaica, Lesotho, and Pakistan. I am currently lecturing on postgraduate MA programmes, Research Projects in PGCE Primary and Secondary Language, and I also teach MA module in TESOL/ TEFL and contribute to the MA module in Research Methods. The MA in TEFL is a new venture for 2015 onwards in collaboration with the School of Linguistics.

Research Interest

My doctoral research focused on teachers' use of code-switching in bilingual classrooms in Wales, with a view to examining in what ways teachers are aware of the positive benefits of Code-switching and to raise awareness of the relationship between code choice, bilingual identity and wider social factors. I am particularly interested in how far teachers employ code-switching as a teaching strategy and how teachers' identities undergo a process of transformation as a result of their experiences of the research process.

Other research interests include metalinguistic awareness (LLAWEN Mentoring Project) with Dr Lise Fontaine, language awareness, bilingual teaching methodology and Narrative Inquiry.
I am a member of CULNET Intercultural Awareness Forum Durham University, BAAL, NA TESOL and NALDIC and have several years experience of working with minority ethnic achievement in Wales. I am a panel member of NAWE and Wales Representative for Lapidus International. I am an external examiner for the MA programme in UHI, Outer Hebrides and St. Mark and St. John University, Plymouth.

I was instrumental in setting up the Wales-Jamaica Project and a current member of the Jamaica-Wales Alliance. I have co-written articles for English in Education and Education Transactions, and I have also written a chapter on Bilingualism with Professor. Colin Baker. I regularly contribute reviews on educational matters and I am an associate member of the ESRC Centre for Bilingualism.

Current teaching

  • Sociolinguistics and Second Language Acquisition
  • Language Awareness and Multilingualism
  • Intercultural Education (MDIS, MA in Education, Singapore).
  • TEFL/ ESL/EAL teaching methodology.

Module Leadership

  • MA module XME4001: Research Methods in Education (Qualitative interviewing)
  • EFL Theory QXL3313
  • MA TEFL QXL4413
  • SLA and Teaching QXL 4420
  • MA TESOL XME4070
  • The Global Child XAE2032 and Y Plentyn Byd Eang, XAC2032.
  • Dissertation Module Convenor, MA in Education All Pathways.

Projects / Publications / Research 


  • LLAWEN Metalinguistic Awareness Project 2015-Present
  • Wales-Jamaica Project, 2001-2006
  • Lesotho Link - : Literacy for Mother Figures, 2003
  • UMEED Literacy Project Pakistan, 2004 - 2006
  • Dynamo Entrepreneurship and Thinking Skills INSET Provider for Teachers KS1-KS4, 2005-2007
  • Code-switching in Secondary schools in Wales 2009-2015


(1996) 'Women, Empowerment and Human Rights in Kassala, Sudan', in Thomas, E., Ashton, S., and Clapham, J. (eds), Changing Faces: International Images of Women. Bangor University.

(1996) 'A Country Without Language - A Country Without Heart', in Daniel, P. (ed.), We Share the Same Struggle - Women In Wales and Nicaragua, Mon and Arfon Central America Group

(2001) 'The Nature and Needs of Bilingual Pupils' (with Colin Baker), in Williams, C., and Roberts, G. (eds), Llyfrau Addysg Cyfrwng Cymraeg, Llyfr 2, University of Wales Press. 

July 2003 Freedom Issues Teaching Focus : 'Slaves to Slate –Caethweision Llechi', Jamaica Project Literacy Resources for use at KS2, Clapham ,J and Egan L.H, English in Wales.

Winter 2004​ Global Perspectives in North Wales: Freedom Issues TeachingFocus (Jamaica Project Literacy Resources for use at KS2,) Clapham J and Egan, L.H., English in Wales.

November 2006 ​Slaves to Slate-Caethweision Llechi – Links between Wales and Jamaica CDROM - Clapham, J and Bennell, S available from: http://www.ngfl-cymru.org.uk/vtc/slaves_to_slate/default.html

Selected Conference Papers

June 2007​ “Trainee Teachers’ Attitudes to Creole in Jamaica” Paper submitted to the Welsh Journal of Education and Educational Transactions, UWB Press. (Also presented to UWI, Mona West Indies).

April 2008 “The Specific Needs of Polish Pupils in Wales: the inclusion of New Arrivals.” Paper presented to WERN bid writing committee Newport, Caerleon/Bangor

2009 ​​BENNELL, S., CLAPHAM, J., EGLEY, S., HUGHES, C., NORCLIFFE, D., & ​​SULLIVAN, D. “Welsh and European Dimensions Of Citizenship: the experience of Polish migrants' children in Wales” in Welsh Journal of Education, 2009, 14(2), pp.131–36.

Research  Paper: Philosophical Inquiry in the Multilingual Classroom – Opening Pandora’s Box.’
Jyvaskyla University, Finland. Erasmus Staff Exchange,  April 2009.

Conference poster presentation: 
‘Teachers’ Beliefs about Code-switching.’
ESRC International Bilingualism Conference Bangor University, September 2009

Conference - paper
‘An Analysis of Trainee Teachers’ perceptions of the use of code-switching in the Bilingual Classroom.’
Graduate School of Education, Exeter University, May 2010.

Conference - paper ' An Analysis of Trainee Teachers’ Use of Code-switching in the Bilingual Secondary School: A case form Wales.’
Annual BESA Conference, Bangor University, November 2011.
Seminar – speaker

Research Paper : “What Teachers Know About Code-switching.’
ESRC Bilingualism Centre, Bangor University, February 2011

Conference – speaker
‘A Narrative Inquiry of Teachers’ Use of Code-switching,’
Annual CULNET Conference, Durham University, May 2011.

Conference poster
“ Code-switching and Bilingualism – a Repertoire of Teachers’ Use and Understanding of Code-switching.’
Bilingualism and Multilingual Cognition Conference, Bangor University, March 2012.

As provider.
Seminar: ‘The Pedagogical Use of Code-switching.’
International ESRC Bilingualism Summer School
Bangor University Management Centre, July 2012.

Doctoral  papers

May 2010​‘Code-switching in the bilingual secondary classroom In Wales.’ Paper presented at the Annual Staff Student Conference, Graduate School of Education, Exeter University.

July 2010     ‘Attitudes to Code-switching in Wales .’ Paper presented at BESA Annual Conference, Bangor University. Published in Education Futures Journal .

6-8 May 2011- ‘A Narrative Inquiry of Teachers’ Use of Codeswitching,’ ​International CULNET conference paper School of Education, Durham University.

February 2012       ‘Dadansoddiad o ddefnydd athrawon dan Hyfforddiant o gyfnewid cod mewn  dosbarth uwchradd dwyieithog: Achos o Gymru’ , erthygl: ​Gwerddon, rhif 10/11 Gorffennaf 2012, (An Analysis of Trainee Teachers’ Use of Codeswitching in Bilingual Secondary Classrooms: A case form Wales. www.gwerddon.org

September 2012    ‘Let me say this yn Gymraeg:’ : The Pedagogical Use of Code-switching: ​​​Implications for Bilingual Classrooms in Wales.’ BAAL Conference, Southampton University

April 18-19, 2013 ‘Bilingual Teacher Identity: Investigating Teachers’ Perceptions of Codeswitching and Bilingual Identity in Wales.’ Paper presented at the I - Mean Annual Conference, University of West England (UWE), Frenchay Campus, Bristol.

Conference paper

‘Bilingual Teacher Identity in Wales – Hunaniaeth Athrawon Dwyieithog yng Nghymru.’
Paper presented at the Annual Welsh Medical Conference, Llandudno, North Wales, October 11, 2014.

Poster presentation: ‘The Pedagogical Use of Code-switching: Implications for Bilingual Classrooms in Wales.’
Poster presented: Annual Research Showcase in Education, School of Education, Bangor University, October 15, 2014.

Guest Speaker_ Sgiliaith Bilingual Teaching MA Training Event, Coleg Menai, Bangor (video link with Swansea FE College.
November 4, 2014.

‘Code-switching, pedagogy and transformation: Teachers’ perceptions of the dynamics of code-switching and bilingual identity.’
Paper presented International Bilingualism Conference Bangor University, June 2016.

Co-Chair with Bryn Jones, Round Table Discussion ‘Trawieithu – Translanguaging’
International Bilingualism Conference Bangor University, June 2016.

Clapham J.J. (2016) Code-switching, Pedagogy and Transformation : Teachers’ Perceptions of the Dynamics of Code-switching and Bilingual Identity. Unpublished Thesis, University of Exeter.

Clapham, J et al (2017) ‘Translanguaging, Identity and Pedagogy’.
Book proposal Multilingual Matters (awaiting confirmation)

April 2017 An Introduction to LLAWEN (Literacy and Language AWareness in EducatioN)
Internationaol CULNET Conference School of Education Durham University.

July 2017 ‘Developing Linguistic Resilience: Mentors
transforming Teacher Education in terms of Literacy Awareness.’
WISERD Conference Bangor University.

September 2017
Languages across the Curriculum in a National and International context. LLAWEN Metalinguistic Awareness Mentoring project: Developing an enabling language repertoire in their subject classrooms.
Linguistics Association of Great Britain Annual Conference, University of Kent, Canterbury . (bid submission , BAAL 2018)

November 5, 2017 ‘Teaching Storytelling for Wellbeing’ seminar presented at the Breathing Space Conference, Tan Y Bwlch, Maentwrog North Wales.

November 24 2017
‘Mythic Journeys: Teaching Poetry and Storytelling for Wellbeing’, Paper presented at National Association for Writers in Education (NAWE), York University.


Research areas

Bilingual Teacher Identity and Code-switching

  • I welcome PhD and MA research projects in the following areas:
  • Code-switching and TESOL;
  • Translangauging theory;
  • The Multilingual Turn ;
  • Intercultural Awareness;
  • Development Education issues: developing global awareness;
  • Aspects of written performance in bilingual settings;
  • Second language acquisition in the multilingual classroom;
  • Language awareness and grammar teaching.


  • Deputy Course Director, Part-Time MA in Education
  • Course Director MA TEFL, Bangor University.
  • Co-ordinator for Overseas Students within English in Education
  • Supervising trainee teachers’ dissertations and mentor training
  • Teaching and Learning Panel, School of Education.
  • Mentor : Women's University Mentoring Scheme
  • PGCertHE Assessor
  • Reviewer for HEA.
  • UCET Literacy Test Piloting Panel.
  • TEFL MA Programme Board. (Linguistics)
  • Bangor English Test Panel. (ELCOS).


BA (Hons) in English Literature, University of Wales, Bangor
PGCE Secondary English, University of Wales, Cardiff
Cert TEFLA, Godmer House, Oxford
MA in Applied Linguistics, University of Wales, Bangor
Doctorate in Education, Exeter University


PhD Supervision

  • Teaching Mandarin Chinese as a L2 in Cambodia
  • Autonomy in language teaching in relation to English for Academic Purposes (EAP) 2017-20.
  • The Impact of Study Abroad in the UK on developing Algerian Students’ Intercultural Competence and Global Citizen Identity
  • An investigation of the shortfalls and challenges of English Language Teaching and Learning in State Secondary Schools in Bangladesh.
  • Aspects of teaching Chinese as a Second Language in the Uk and America (forthcoming).

MA Dissertation Supervision

  • Creativity and Secondary Education (ongoing ): An exploration of teacher perceptions into creativity and critical thinking.
  • The relationship among L1 Arabic University ESL learners’ Emotional Intelligence (EI), attribution patterns and their speaking ability.
  • A study of teachers’ perceptions of Chinese students’ oral strategies when learning EFL
  • No Child Left Behind’s accountability testing and outcomes on reading proficiency in the US. (successful completion)
  • An Examination of the Effect of Emotions on the English Proficiency of EFL Adult learners.(successful completion)
  • The Effectiveness of target groups for developing aspects of reading in Primary Schools in Wales (successful completion)
  • A Case Study of Learning Strategies used by European and American Students (successful completion)
  • Language Testing in the Chinese Context (successful completion)
  • Communicative Language Teaching in TESOL Classes in China (successful completion)
  • Learning Attitudes to ESDGC in Wales and Nepal (successful completion)
  • EAL in Irish Primary schools (successful completion)
  • Language planning in rural China (successful completion)
  • Developing ESP Tuition for Chinese workers in Singapore (successful completion)
  • Aspects of Intercultural Education in Singapore (successful completion)
  • Language Learning and Anxiety (successful completion)
  • The Potential Influence of Chinese on the Second Language Writing of Chinese Students Studying Abroad (successful completion)
  • Chinese Students’ Reading Strategies in English (successful completion)

PGCE Research Project Supervision
Supervision of research involving case studies and Action Research.

  • The importance of provisional areas for the development of fine motor skills in Early Years.
  • The Impact of Poverty on Attainment in Primary Schools in Wales.
  • The Effectiveness of Dual-language Teaching (or partial immersion) in Primary Schools in Wales in Expanding the number of pupils electing to continue in secondary education with Welsh First Language.
  • The Effectiveness of Experiential Learning in Primary Schools in Wales in developing Pupil Engagement and Confidence.



Project work for the Wales-Jamaica Project can be found at http://www.ngfl-cymru.org.uk/vtc/slavestoslate/default.html