Professor Chris Richardson
BSc PhD (Wales)

Photograph of Prof Chris Richardson

Biography

I am a Professor in Marine Biology at Bangor University's School of Ocean Sciences. In 1975 I completed a BSc in Marine Biology and Zoology here and in 1979 a PhD, jointly in the NERC Marine Invertebrate Biology unit in Menai Bridge and in the Zoology Department at Bangor. My PhD thesis was entitled "The effect of environmental factors on the shell of the cockle, Cerastoderma edule" under the supervision of Professor D.J. Crisp CBE. FRS. and Dr N.W. Runham. I have been a SERC and NERC postdoctoral fellow and a Special NERC fellow before being appointed to a junior lectureship in 1990. I was promoted to Reader in 2002, Professor in 2007 and Head of the School of Ocean Sciences from May 2011 until July 2016.

Research Interests

My research interests focus on the growth, behaviour, physiology and reproduction of marine molluscs. I am particularly interested in the incremental growth of bivalve and gastropod shells and I am studying the mechanism of formation of semi-diurnal, diurnal and annual microgrowth patterns in bivalve shells. I have been investigating the use of mollusc shells as archives of environmental contamination. Using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) (studies in collaboration with the British Geological Survey) it has been possible to show that horse mussel, Modiolus modiolus shells contain a record of changes in the heavy metal content of the North Sea. Mussel, Mytilus trossulus shells growing in close proximity to effluent discharges from Kraft Pulp mills in Canada contain a different chemical signature to mussels growing distant from sites of discharge. The shells of razor clams and dog cockles damaged by fishing gears contain a record of the frequency of damage. Recent ecological research has focussed on the feeding behaviour of the predatory burrowing starfish Astropecten irregularis and the necklace shell Polinices catenus and the impact these species have on benthic community structure.

Research Groups

Research Themes

Research Grants Awarded

2011

  • Accurate demographic analysis of the ocean quahog the longest-lived animal. Leverhulme Trust (U.K. charity). Value £36,020 (Ridgway & Richardson).
  • FCT Portugal (Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Technologia). The potential of the dog cockle, Glycymeris glycymeris (Bivalvia) as an annually resolved, multi-proxy, multi-centennial paleoenvironmental proxy archive for changes in the Upwelling system off Portugal. Total Funding: €167,880 (Awarded to Freitas & Gaspar (Portugal) & Richardson).

2010

  • Age and growth rate of the horse mussel Modiolus modiolus from Smith Bank, northern North Sea. Funded by the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC). Value £12,000 (Awarded to Richardson, Ridgway, Hartley (Hartley Anderson) and Chenery (British Geological Survey).
  • Dog cockle Glycymeris glycymeris shells: recorders of past environmental conditions - study of the effects of drilling discharges. Funded by the Department of Energy & Climate Change (DECC). Value £40,000 (Awarded to Richardson, Ridgway, Hartley (Hartley Anderson) and Chenery (British Geological Survey)
  • NERC funded ULTRA - Ultra high resolution records of climate change from the shells of Arctica islandica Value: £247,000 (awarded to Richardson & Scourse)

2009

  • BBSRC funded Mechanisms of exceptional longevity in the worlds longest-lived animal. BBSRC. (Awarded to Ridgway & Richardson) Value: £398,479.

2007

  • The long-lived clam Arctica islandica, a new model species for ageing research. An “Age concern” Discipline Hopping award. £44,184. (awarded to Ridgway & Richardson).

2005

  • MOMAR (EU Marie Curie). Records of environmental change in the shells of the hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus. Value £139,473 (awarded to Dando, Kennedy, Richardson & Clarke).

2004

  • Department of Trade & Industry (DTI). Sclerochronological records in the shell of Arctica islandica; an analysis of past environmental conditions Value: £53,740 (awarded to Richardson & Scourse).
  • SPLASH (Special Protection and Local Action for Species and Habitats). Funded by the Esmée Fairbairn Foundation to study the Horse mussel Modiolus modiolus from Strangford Lough and the fan mussel Atrina fragilis. Value: £21,500 (awarded to Richardson).

2003

  • NERC Funded Towards an absolute chronology for the marine environment; a 1000 year record from the North Sea. Value £199,411. (Awarded to Richardson & Scourse).
  • Countryside Council for Wales (CCW). Age determination of a population of the common European oyster Ostrea edulis in Milford Haven. Value £7,382.2 (Awarded to Richardson).
  • BBSRC, Sustainable mussel cultivation: an interdisciplinary approach. (Awarded to Kaiser, Jones, Simpson, Jago, Richardson). Value £150,064.
  • CEFAS, Burnham-on-Crouch. Statoliths and Mg:Ca ratios in red whelks as a method of estimating their age. Value: £12,125. (Awarded to C. A. Richardson).

2002

  • (NERC Funded) Elemental records of upwelling events in mussel Perna perna shells. Value £17.131. (Awarded to Richardson)

2000

  • Palaeoclimatic applications of growth bands, stable isotopic and trace element profiles from modern and subfossil Arctica islandica. (Awarded to Scourse and Richardson) Value £68,000

1997

  • Bivalve and echinoderm species as indicators of fishing disturbance. (MAFF Chief Scientists group CSG) Value £144,000 (Awarded to Richardson & Kaiser)

1995

  • Meiofauna responses to man-made perturbations. (MAFF Chief Scientists group CSG) Value £68,000 (Awarded to Richardson)

1995

  • Transport of seed scallops, Pecten maximus. (MAFF Chief Scientists group CSG) Value £138,037 (Awarded to Richardson)

Publications

Peer Reviewed Journal Papers

Whitton, T.A., Jenkins, S.R., Richardson, C.A., Hiddink, J.G., 2016.
The effect of macrofaunal disturbance on Cerastoderma edule post-larvae. J. Sea Res. 112, 23-31. doi:10.1016/j.seares.2016.03.002
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Whitton TA, Jenkins SR, Richardson CA and Hiddink JG (2015)
Changes in small scale spatial structure of cockle Cerastoderma edule (L.) post-larvae. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 468, 1-10.
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Bohn K, Richardson CA, Jenkins SR 2013
Larval microhabitat associations of the non-native gastropod Crepidula fornicata and effects on recruitment success in the intertidal zone. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 448: 289-297

Bohn K, Richardson CA, Jenkins SR 2013
The importance of larval supply, larval habitat selection and post-settlement mortality in determining intertidal adult abundance of the invasive gastropod Crepidula fornicate. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 440: 132-140

Brocas, W.M., Reynolds, D.J., Butler, P.G., Richardson, C.A., Scourse, J.D., Ridgway, I.D. and Ramsay, K. (2013)
The dog cockle, Glycymeris glycymeris (L.), a new annually-resolved sclerochronological archive for the Irish Sea. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 373, 133-140.
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Butler, P.G., Wanamaker, A.D. Jr., Scourse, J.D., Richardson, C.A. and Reynolds, D.J. (2013)
Variability of marine climate on the North Icelandic Shelf in a 1357-year proxy archive based on growth increments in the bivalve Arctica islandica.
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 373, 141-151.
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Hollyman P, Luckenbach M, Richardson CA. 2013.
Nondaily Deposition of Striae in the Bay Scallop Argopecten irradians (Concentricus) in the Laboratory. Journal of Shellfish Research 32(2): 361-368.
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Reynolds, D.J., Butler, P.G., Williams, S.M., Scourse, J.D., Richardson, C.A., Wanamaker, A.D. Jr., Austin, W.E.N., Cage, A. and Sayer, M. (2013)
A multiproxy reconstruction of Hebridean (NW Scotland) spring sea surface temperatures between AD 1805 and 2010. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 386, 275-285.
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Reynolds, D.J., Richardson, C.A., Scourse, J.D., Butler, P.G., Wanamaker, A.D. Jr., Ridgway, I., Sayer, M.D.J., and Gulliver, P. (2013)
The potential of the marine bivalve mollusc Glossus humanus (L.) as a sclerochronological archive The Holocene 23(12), 1711-1720.
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Bohn K, Richardson CA, Jenkins SR 2012
The invasive gastropod Crepidula fornicata: reproduction and recruitment in the intertidal at its northern most range in Wales, U.K. and implications for its secondary spread. Marine Biology 159: 2091-2103

Karney, G.B., Butler, P.G., Speller, S., Scourse, J.D., Richardson, C.A., Schröder, M., Hughes, G., Czernuska, J.T. and Grovenor, C.R.M. (2012).
Characterising the microstructure of Arctica islandica shells using NanoSIMS and EBSD. Geophysics, Geochemistry, Geosystems 13(4), Q04002 doi: 10.1029/201.
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Scourse, J.D., Wanamaker, A.D. Jr., Weidman, C., Heinemeier, J., Reimer, P.J., Butler, P.G. and Richardson, C.A. (2012)
The marine radiocarbon bomb-pulse across the temperate North Atlantic: a compilation of Δ14C time histories from Arctica islandica growth increments. Radiocarbon 54, 165-186. [1]

Wanamaker, A.D. Jr,, Butler, P.G., Scourse, J.D., Heinemeier, J., Eiríksson, J., Knudsen, K.L. and Richardson, C.A. (2012).
Surface changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the last millennium. Nature Communications 3:899 doi: 10.1038/ncomms1901 (including Nature Communications featured cover image).

Whitton, T., Richardson, C. A., Jenkins, S. R. and Hiddink, J. G. (2012)
The effect of prey aggregation on predation rates: juvenile shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) foraging on post-larval cockles (Cerastoderma edule). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 432-433, 29-36.
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Al-Mamry, J., Ben-Meriem, S., McCarthy, I.D. and Richardson C.A. (2011).
Fishing pattern and interactions of fleet components in the Argyrops spinifer (Forskål, 1775) fisheries of the Arabian Sea, Oman. Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria, 41, 55-62, doi: 10.3750/AIP2011.41.1.08

Ridgway, I.D., Richardson, C.A., Enos, E., Ungvari, Z., Austad, S.N., Philipp, E.E.R., Csiszar, A. (2011).
New species longevity record for the northern quahog (= hard clam), Mercenaria mercenaria. Journal of Shellfish Research 30(1): 35-38.

Butler, P.G., Wanamaker, A.D. Jr., Scourse, J.D., Richardson, C.A. and Reynolds, D.J. (2011)
Long-term stability of δ13C with respect to biological age in the aragonite shell of mature specimens of the bivalve mollusk Arctica islandica. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 302 21-30 doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.03.038.

I. D. Ridgway; C. A. Richardson; S. N. Austad. 2011.
Maximum Shell Size, Growth Rate, and Maturation Age Correlate With Longevity in Bivalve Molluscs. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences, 66A(2), 183-190

Karney, G.B., Butler, P.G., Scourse, J.D., Richardson, C.A., Lau, K.H., Czernuska, J.T. and Grovenor, C.R.M. (2011).
Identification of growth increments in the shell of the bivalve mollusc Arctica islandica using backscattered electron imaging. Journal of Microscopy, 24(1), 29-36. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2818.2010.03403.x

Ridgway, I.D., Richardson, C.A., Scourse, J.D., Butler, P.G. and Reynolds, D.J., 2011.
The population structure and biology of the ocean quahog, Arctica islandica, in Belfast Lough, Northern Ireland. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. doi:10.1017/S0025315411000154

Jones, N.J.E. and Richardson, C.A. 2012.
Distribution and reproductive biology of the little cuttlefish Sepiola atlantica (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae) around Anglesey, North Wales. Helgoland Marine Research. 66, 233-242.

Butler, P.G., Richardson, C.A., Scourse, J.D., Wanamaker, A.D., Jr., Shammon, T.M., Bennell, J.D. (2010).
Marine climate in the Irish Sea: analysis of a 489-year marine master chronology derived from growth increments in the shell of the clam Arctica islandica. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29, 1614-1632.

Ridgway, I.D. and Richardson, C. A. 2010.
Arctica islandica: the longest lived non colonial animal known to science. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries. Online first. DOI: 10.1007/s11160 -010-9171-9
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Jones, N.J.E. and Richardson, C.A. 2010.
Laboratory culture, growth and the life cycle of the little cuttlefish, Sepiola atlantica (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae). Journal of Shellfish Research. 29 (1), 241-246.

Butler, P.G., Scourse, J.D., Richardson, C.A., Wanamaker, A.D., Jr., Bryant, C.L., and Bennell, J.D. (2009)
Continuous marine radiocarbon reservoir calibration and the 13C Suess effect in the Irish Sea: results from the first absolutely dated multi-centennial shell-based marine master chronology, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 279, 230-241

Al-Mamry, J.M.A., McCarthy, I.D., Richardson, C.A. and Ben-Meriem, S. (2009)
Biology of the king soldier bream, Argyrops spinifer (Forsskål 1775), from the Arabian Sea, Oman. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 25, 5, 559-564

Butler, P.G., Richardson, C.A., Scourse, J.D., Witbaard, R., Schöne, B.R., Fraser, N.M., Wanamaker, A.D., Jr., Bryant, C.L., Harris, I., and Robertson, I. (2009)
Accurate increment identification and the spatial extent of the common signal in five Arctica islandica chronologies from the Fladen Ground, northern North Sea, Paleoceanography, 24, PA2210, doi:10.1029/2008PA001715.

Wanamaker, A.D. Jr., Baker, A., Butler, P.G., Richardson, C.A., Scourse, J.D., Ridgway, I. and Reynolds, D.J. (2009).
A novel method for imaging internal growth patterns in marine mollusks: A fluorescence case study on the aragonitic shell of the marine bivalve Arctica islandica (Linnaeus.). Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 7, 673-681.

Jones, N.J.E., Ridgway, I.D. and Richardson, C.A. 2009.
Transport of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, eggs under dry and damp conditions. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 75, 192-194.

Freitas, P.S., Clarke, L.J., Kennedy, H.A. and Richardson, C.A., 2008
Inter- and intra-specimen variability masks reliable temperature control on shell Mg/Ca ratios in laboratory and field cultured Mytilus edulis and Pecten maximus (bivalvia), Biogeosciences Discussions, 5, 531-572.
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Freitas, P.S., Clarke, L.J., Kennedy, H.A. and Richardson, C.A., 2008
Inter- and intra-specimen variability masks reliable temperature control on shell Mg/Ca ratios in laboratory and field cultured Mytilus edulis and Pecten maximus (bivalvia), Biogeosciences, 5, 1245-1258.
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Wanamaker, A.D., Jr., Heinemeier, J., Scourse, J.D., Richardson, C.A., Butler, P.G., Eiríksson, J., and Knudsen, K.L. (2008)
Very-long lived molluscs confirm 17th century AD tephra-based radiocarbon reservoir ages for north Icelandic shelf waters, Radiocarbon, 50, No. 3.

Al-Mamry, J.M., El Ganainy, A.A., McCarthy, I., Richardson, C. and Ben Meriem, S. (2007)
Age, growth and reproductive biology of Spangled Emperor, Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål, 1775), from the Arabian Sea, Oman. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 33, 395-410.

Chatzinikolaou, E. and Richardson, C.A. 2007.
Evaluating the growth and age of the netted whelk Nassarius reticulatus (gastropoda: nassaridae) from statolith growth rings. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 342, 163-176.

Peharda, M., Richardson, C. A., Mladineo, I., Šestanović, S., Popović, Z and Bolotin, J. 2007.
Age, growth and population structure of Modiolus barbatus from the Adriatic. Marine Biology, 151, 2, 629-638.

Scolding J.W.S., Richardson, C.A. and Luckenbach, M.J. 2007
Predation of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) by the whelk (Buccinum undatum) under laboratory conditions. Journal of Molluscan Studies 73(4) 333-337

Freitas, P.F., Clarke, L.J., Kennedy, H., Richardson, C., Abrantes, F., 2006
Environmental and biological controls on elemental (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca) ratios in shells of the king scallop Pecten maximus, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70, 5119-5133.
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Freitas, P.S., Clarke, L.J., Kennedy, H., Richardson, C.A. and Abrantes, F. (2006)
Environmental and biological controls on elemental (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca) ratios in shells of the king scallop, Pecten maximus. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70, 5119-5133.

Griffiths, C.L. and Richardson, C.A. (2006)
Chemically induced predator avoidance behaviour in the burrowing bivalve Macoma balthica. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 331, 91-98.

Prime, M., Peharda, M., Jelic, K., Mladineo, K. and Richardson, C.A. (2006)
The occurrence of imposex in Hexaplex trunculus from the Croatian Adriatic. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 52, 800-815.

Scourse, J., Richardson, C., Forsythe, G., Harris, I., Heinemeier, J., Fraser, N., Briffa, K. and Jones, P. (2006)
First cross-matched floating chronology from the marine fossil record: data from growth lines of the long-lived bivalve mollusc Arctica Islandica. The Holocene, 16, 967-974.

Barroso, C.M., Moreira, M.H. and Richardson, C.A. (2005)
Age and growth of Nassarius reticulatus in the Ria de Aveiro, north-west Portugal. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K., 85, 151-156.

Barroso, C.M., Nunes, M., Richardson, C.A. and Moreira, M.H. (2005)
The gastropod statolith: a tool for determining the age of Nassarius reticulatus. Marine Biology, 146, 1139-1144.

Freitas, P., Clarke, L.J., Kennedy, H., Richardson, C. and Abrantes, F. (2005)
Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, and stable-isotope (‘delta’180 and ‘delta’13C) ratio profiles from the fan mussel Pinna nobilis: Seasonal records and temperature relationships. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., Vol.6, No. 4, doi. 10.1029/2004GC000872.

Freitas, P.F., Clarke, L.J., Kennedy, H., Richardson, C., Abrantes, F., 2005
Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, and stable-isotope (δ18O and δ13C) ratio profiles from the fan mussel Pinna nobilis: Seasonal records and temperature relationships, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 6, DOI:10.1029/2004GC000872.
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Kingsley-Smith, P.R., Richardson, C.A. and Seed, R. (2005)
Growth and development of the veliger larvae and juveniles of Polinices pulchellus (Gastropoda: Naticidae). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, 85, 171-174.

Leontarakis, P.K. and Richardson, C.A. (2005)
Growth of the smooth clam, Callista chione (Linnaeus, 1758) (Bivalvia: Veneridae) from the Thracian Sea, northeastern Mediterranean. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 71, 189-198.

Pinn, E.H., Richardson, C.A., Thompson, R.C. and Hawkins, S.J. (2005)
Burrow morphology, biometry, age and growth of piddocks (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pholadidae) on the south coast of England. Marine Biology, 147, 943-953.

Richardson, C.A., Kingsley-Smith, P.R., Seed, R. and Chatzinikolaou, E. (2005)
Age and growth of the naticid gastropod Polinices pulchellus (Gastropoda: Naticidae) based on length frequency analysis and statolith growth rings. Marine Biology, 148, 319-326.

Richardson, C.A., Saurel, C., Barroso, C.M. and Thain, J. (2005)
Evaluation of the age of the red whelk Neptunea antiqua using statoliths, opercula and element ratios in the shell. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 325, 55-64.

Grigoriou, P. and Richardson, C.A. (2004)
Aspects of the growth of cultured cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus 1758). Aquaculture Research, 35, 1141- 1148.

Richardson, C.A., Peharda, M., Kennedy, H.A., Kennedy, P. and Onofri, V. (2004)
Age, growth rate and season of recruitment of Pinna nobilis (L.)in the Croatian Adriatic determined from Mg:Ca and Sr:Ca shell profiles. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 299, 1-16.

Kingsley-Smith, P. R., Richardson, C.A. and Seed R. 2003.
Size-related patterns of egg collar production in Pollinices pulchellus (Gastropoda; Naticidae) Risso 1826. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 295, 191-206.

Kingsley-Smith, P. R., Richardson, C.A. and Seed R. 2003.
Stereotypic and size-selective predation in Polinices pulchellus (Gastropoda: Naticidae) Risso 1826. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 295, 173-190. Ranking: B. Status:

Owen, R., Kennedy, H, Richardson, C. 2002
Field investigation into partitioning of stable oxygen and carbon isotopes between Pecten maximus calcite and seawater. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta. 66(10) 1727-1737.

Owen, R., Kennedy, H. and Richardson, C. (2002)
Isotopic partitioning between scallop shell calcite and seawater: Effect of shell growth rate. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 66, 1727-1737.

Owen, R., Kennedy, H. and Richardson, C.A. 2002b
An experimental investigation into partitioning of stable isotopes between scallop (Pecten maximus) shell calcite and sea water. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 185(1-2), 163-174.

Owen, R., Kennedy, H. and Richardson, C.A. 2002a
Isotopic partitioning between scallop shell calcite and sea water: Effect of shell growth rate. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 66/10, 1727-1737.

Owen, R., Richardson, C. and Kennedy, H. 2002
The influence of shell growth rate on striae deposition in the scallop Pecten maximus. Journal of the Marine Biological Association, 82, 621-624.

Peharda, M., Richardson, C.A., Onofri, V., Bratos, A. and Crncevic, M. 2002.
Age and growth of the Noah's ark shell Arca noae L. in the Croatian Adriatic Sea. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 68, 307-310.

Freeman, S.M. Richardson, C.A. and Seed, R. (2001)
Seasonal abundance, spatial distribution, spawning and growth of Astropecten irregularis (Echinodermata : Asteroidea). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 53, 39–49.

Kennedy, H., Richardson, C.A., Duarte, C.M. and Kennedy, D.P. (2001a)
Diet and association of Pontonia pinnophylax (Decapoda: Natantia: Pontoniinae) occurring in Pinna nobilis (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pinnidae) from the Mediterranean : insights from stable isotope analysis. Journal of Marine Biological Association of the U.K., 81, 177–178.

Kennedy, H., Richardson, C.A., Duarte, C.M. and Kennedy, D.P. (2001b)
Oxygen and carbon stable isotopic profiles of the fan mussel, Pinna nobilis, and reconstruction of sea surface temperatures in the Mediterranean. Marine Biology, 139, 1115–1124.

Ramsay, K., Bergmann, M., Veale, L.O., Richardson, C.A., Kaiser, M.J., Vize, S. J. and Feist, S.W. (2001)
Damage, autotomy and arm regeneration in starfish caught by towed demersal fishing gears. Marine Biology, 138, 527–536.

Ramsay, K., Kaiser, M.J. and Richardson, C.A. (2001)
Invest in arms:the behavioural and energetic implications of multiple autonomy in starfish. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 50, 360–365.

Ramsay, K., Richardson, C.A. and Kaiser, M.J. (2001)
Causes of shell scarring in dog cockles Glycymeris glycymeris L. Journal of Sea Research, 45, 131–139.

Richardson, C.A. (2001)
Molluscs as archives of environmental change. Oceanography and Marine Biology – An Annual Review, 39, 103–164.

Richardson, C.A., Chenery, S.R.N. and Cook, J.M. (2001)
Assessing the history of trace metal (Cu, Zn, Pb) contamination in the North Sea through laser ablation ICP–MS of horse mussel, Modiolus modiolus shells. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 211, 157–167.

Abades, S., Richardson, C.A. and Otaiza, R. 2000.
Dynamical assessment of the accretionary record in the shell of the mussel Semimytilus algosus (Gould, 1950) from a rocky shore in Chile. Biosystems, 57, 163-172.

Boyd, S.E., Rees, H.L. and Richardson, C.A. (2000)
Nematodes as sensitive indicators of change at dredged material disposal sites. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 51, 805–819.

Ramsay, K. and Richardson, C.A. (2000)
Techniques for assessing repaired shell damage in dog cockles, Glycymeris glycymeris L. Journal of Shellfisheries Research, 19, 927–931.

Ramsay, K., Kaiser, M.J., Richardson, C.A., Veale, L.O. and Brand, A.R. (2000)
Can shell scars on dog cockles (Glycymeris glycymeris L.) be used as an indicator of fishing disturbance? Journal of Sea Research, 43, 167–176.

Ramsay, K., Turner, J.R., Vize, S.J. and Richardson, C.A. (2000)
A link between predator density and arm loss in the starfish Marthasterias glacialis and Asterias rubens. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, 80, 565–566.

Thompson, T.S., Richardson, A.C., Seed, R. and Walker, G. (2000)
Quantification of mussel (Mytilus edulis) growth from power station cooling waters in response to chlorination procedures. Biofouling, 16, 1–15.

Gray, A.P., Lucas. I.A.N., Seed, R. and Richardson, C.A. (1999)
Mytilus edulis chilensis infested with Coccomyxa parasitica (Chlorococcales, Coccomyxaceae). Journal of Molluscan Studies, 65, 289–294.

Kaiser, M.J., Ramsay, K., Richardson, C.A., Spence, F.E. and Brand, A.R. (1999)
Chronic historical fishing disturbance has changed shelf sea benthic community structure. Journal of Animal Ecology, 69, 494–503.

Richardson, C.A., Kennedy, H., Duarte, C.M., Kennedy, D.P. and Proud, S.V. (1999)
Age and growth of the fan mussel Pinna nobilis from south–east Spanish Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) meadows. Marine Biology, 133, 205–212.

Seed, R. and Richardson, C.A. (1999)
Evolutionary traits in Perna viridis (Linnaeus) and Septifer virgatus (Weigmann) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 239, 273–287.

Freeman, S.M., Richardson, C.A. and Seed, R. 1998.
The distribution and occurrence of Acholoë squamosa (Polychaeta: Polynoidae) a commensal with the burrowing starfish Astropecten irregularis (Echinodermata: Asteroidea). Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 47, 107-118.

Robinson, R.F. and Richardson, C.A. (1998)
The direct and indirect effects of suction dredging on a razor clam (Ensis arcuatus) population. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 55, 970–977.

Gray, A.P., Richardson, C.A. and Seed, R. 1997.
Ecological relationships between the valviferan isopod Edotia doellojuradoi Giambiagi 1925 and its host Mytilus edulis chilensis in the Falkland Islands. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 44, 231-239.

Gray, A.P., Seed, R. and Richardson, C.A. 1997.
Reproduction and growth of Mytilus edulis chilensis from the Falkland Islands. Proceedings of the Twelfth European Malacological Congress, Vigo, Spain. Scientia Marina, 61, 39-48.

Richardson, C.A., Kennedy, H., DUARTE, C.M. and PROUD, S.V. 1997.
The occurrence of Pontonia pinnophylax (Decopoda, Natantia, Pontoniinae) in Pinna nobilis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pinnidae) from the Mediterranean. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom , 77, 1227-1230.

Thompson, IS., Seed, R., Richardson, C.A., Hui, L. and Walker, G.1997.
Effects of low level chlorination on the recruitment, behaviour and shell growth of Mytilus edulis Linnaeus in power station cooling water. Proceedings of the Twelfth European Malacological Congress, Vigo, Scientia Marina, Spain. 61, 77-85.

Owen, R., Kennedy, H.A. and Richardson, C.A. 1996.
Stable isotope ratios in scallop calcite record oceanic temperature and productivity cycles. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 75, 218.

Ramón, M., Abelló, P. and Richardson, C.A. 1995.
Population structure and growth of Donax trunculus (Bivalvia: Donacidae) in the western Mediterranean. Marine Biology, 121, 665-671.

Richardson, C.A., Seed, R., Brotohadikusomo, N. and Owen,R.J. 1995.
Age, growth rate and allometric relationships of the black mussel, Septifer virgatus (Bivalvia : Mytilidae). Asian Marine Biology, 12, 37-49.

Gaspar, M.B., Richardson, C.A. and Monteiro, C.A. 1994.
The effects of dredging on shell formation in the razor clam, Ensis siliqua from Barrinha, southern Portugal. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom , 74, 927-938.

Henderson, S.M. and Richardson, C.A. 1994.
A comparison of the age, growth rate and burrowing behaviour of the razor clams Ensis siliqua and Ensis ensis from North Wales. U.K. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 74, 939-954.

Spencer B.E., Edwards D.B., Kaiser M.J. and Richardson C.A. 1994.
Spatfalls of the non-native Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, in British waters. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 4: 203-219.

Richardson, C.A., Collis, S.A., Ekaratne, K., Dare P. and Key, D. 1993.
The age determination and growth rate of the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, in British waters determined from acetate peels of umbo growth lines. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 50, 493-500.

Richardson, C.A., Ibarrola, I. and Ingham, R.J. 1993.
Emergence pattern and spatial distribution of the common cockle Cerastoderma edule. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 99, 71-81.

Richardson, C.A., Seed, R., Al-Roumaihi, E.M.H., McDonald, L. 1993.
Distribution, shell growth and predation of the New Zealand oyster, Tiostrea (= Ostrea) lutaria Hutton, in the Menai Strait, North Wales. Journal of Shellfish Research, 12, 2, 207-214.

Thompson, I. and Richardson, C.A. 1993.
The response of the common cockle Cerastoderma edule to simulated chlorination procedures. Biofouling, 7, 299-312.

Ramón, M. and Richardson, C.A. 1992.
Age determination and shell growth of Chamelea gallina (Bivalvia: Veneridae) in the western Mediterranean. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 89, 15-23.

Richardson, C.A. and Walker, P. 1991.
The age structure of a population of the Hard -Shell clam Mercenaria mercenaria from Southampton Water, England, derived from acetate peel replicas of shell sections. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 48, 229-236.

Anwar, N.A., Richardson, C.A. and Seed, R. 1990.
Age determination, growth rate and population structure of the horse mussel Modiolus modiolus. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 70, 441-457.

Crisp, D.J., Wieghell, J.G. and Richardson, C.A. 1990.
Tidal microgrowth patterns in Siphonaria gigas (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) from the coast of Costa Rica. Malacologia, 31(2), 235-242.

Richardson, C.A. and Seed, R. 1990.
Predictions of mussel (Mytilus edulis) biomass on an offshore platform from single population samples. Biofouling, 2, 289-297.

Richardson, C.A., Seed, R. and Naylor, E. 1990.
Use of internal growth bands for measuring individual and population growth rates in Mytilus edulis from offshore production platforms. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 66, 259-265.

Richardson, C.A. 1989.
An analysis of the growth bands in the shell of the common mussel Mytilus edulis. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K., 69, 477-491.

Richardson, C.A. 1988.
Tidally produced growth bands in the subtidal bivalve Spisula subtruncata (Da Costa). Journal of Molluscan Studies, 54, 71-82.

Richardson, C.A. 1988.
Exogenous and endogenous rhythms of band formation in the shell of the clam Tapes philippinarum (Adams et Reeve 1850). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 122, 105-126.

Richardson, C.A. 1987.
Microgrowth bands in the shell of the Malaysian cockle Anadara granosa and their use in age determination. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 111, 77-98.

Richardson, C.A. 1987.
Tidal bands in the shell of the clam Tapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeve 1850). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series, B, 230, 367-387.

Richardson, C.A. 1984.
Effects of drilling cuttings on the behaviour of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 15(5), 170-174.

Richardson, C.A., Gale, G.F. and Venn, T.J. 1984.
The effect of iron ore suspensions and food on the shell growth rates and tissue weights of queen scallops Chlamys opercularis held in the laboratory. Marine Environmental Research, 13, 1-31.

Richardson, C.A., Taylor, A.C. and Venn, T.J. 1982.
Growth of the queen scallop Chlamys opercularis in suspended cages in the Firth of Clyde. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K., 62, 157-169.

Richardson, C.A., Crisp, D.J. and Runham, N.W. 1981.
Factors influencing shell deposition during a tidal cycle in the intertidal bivalve Cerastoderma edule. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 61, 465-476.

Richardson, C.A., Runham, N.W. and Crisp, D.J. 1981.
A histological and ultrastructural study of the cells of the mantle edge of a marine bivalve Cerastoderma edule. Tissue and Cell, 13(4), 715-730.

Richardson, C.A., Crisp, D.J. and Runham, N.W. 1980.
Factors influencing shell growth in Cerastoderma edule. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 210, 515-531

Richardson, C.A., Crisp, D.J. and Runham, N.W. 1980.
An endogenous rhythm in shell deposition in Cerastoderma edule. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 60, 991-1004.

Richardson, C.A., Crisp, D.J., Runham, N.W. and Gruffydd, Ll.D. 1980.
The use of tidal growth bands in the shell of Cerastoderma edule to measure seasonal growth rates under cool temperate and sub-arctic conditions. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 60, 977-989.

Richardson, C.A., Crisp, D.J. and Runham, N.W. 1979.
Tidally deposited growth bands in the shell of the common cockle Cerastoderma edule (L). Malacologia, 18, 277-290.

Crisp, D.J. and Richardson, C.A. 1975.
Tidally-produced bands in the shell of Elminius modestus. Marine Biology, 33, 155-160.

Book Reviews

Richardson, C.A. 1992.
Invited book review Scallops: Biology, Ecology and Aquaculture, Editor S.E. Shumway. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 164, 280-281.

Book Chapters

Seed, R. and Richardson, C.A. 2003.
Mussels - catalysts to understanding change on rocky shores. In: Perspectives on Marine Environmental Change in Hong Kong and southern China, 1977-2000. Ed. B. Morton. Proceedings of an International Workshop Reunion Conference, Hong Kong 21-26 October 2001, pp. 409-432.

Seed, R., Richardson, C.A. and Smith, K. (2000)
Marine mussels, their evolution, ecological significance, and use as chronometers of environmental change. In: The Evolutionary Biology of the Bivalvia,[Harper, E.M., Taylor,J.D. and Crame J.A. [eds.], Geological Society, London, Special Publication, 177, 465–478.

Seed, R., Richardson, C.A. and Smith, K. 2000.
Marine mussels, their ecological significance, and use as chronometers of environmental change. In: The Evolutionary Biology of the Bivalvia (Eds. E.Harper, J.D. Taylor and J.A. Crame). Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 177, 465-478.

Freeman, S.M., Richardson, C.A. and Seed, R. (1999)
Seasonal abundance prey selection and locomotory activity patterns of Astropecten irregularis. In: Echinoderm Research 1998 [eds. M.D.C.Carnevali and F.Bonasoro], Proceedings of the Fifth European Conference on Echinoderms, Milan, Italy, September 1998. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp.459–464.

PROUD, S.V. and Richardson, C.A. 1997.
Observations on the incidence of imposex in intertidal and subtidal Neogastropoda (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Hong Kong. Proceedings of the Eighth International Marine Biological Workshop: the Marine Flora and Fauna of Hong Kong and Southern China, Hong Kong 2-20 April 1995. [Ed. B. Morton], pp381-389. Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong.

Owen, R. and Richardson, C.A. 1996
Interpretation of internal growth records in Arctica islandica shells (Mollusca : Bivalvia). Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Biomineralization, Monaco, 1993. Bulletin de l'Institut Océanographique, Monaco, m spécial, 14, 4, 113-120.

Richardson, C.A. 1996.
Exogenous or endogenous control of growth band formation in subtidal bivalve shells. Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Biomineralization, Monaco, 1993. Bulletin de l'Institut Océanographique, Monaco, m, spécial 14, 4, 133-141.

Richardson, C.A. 1995.
Growth patterns in intertidal tropical mollusc shells. In: The Marine Biology of the South China Sea. [Eds. B. Morton, XuGongzhao, Zou Renlin, Pan Jinpei and Cai Guoxiong]. Proceedings of the second International Conference, Guangzhou, China, 1993. World Publishing Corporation, Beijing, China, 33-38.

Richardson, C.A. and LIU, J.H. 1994.
Tidal microgrowth bands in the shell of the intertidal limpet Cellana toreuma (Reeve 1855) from the shores of Cape d'Aquilar, Hong Kong. Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on the Malacofauna of Hong Kong and southern China 1993. [Ed. B. Morton], 445-465.

Richardson, C.A. 1993.
Bivalve shells: chronometers of environmental change. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Marine Biology of Hong Kong and the South China Sea 1990. [Ed. B. Morton], Hong Kong University Press, 419-434.

Richardson, C.A. 1992.
Periodic patterns influencing spatial patterns in bivalve mollusk shells. In: Oscillations and Morphogenesis. [Ed. L. Rensing]. Part of the series Cellular Clocks, Marcel Decker, New York, Editor L.Edmunds, pp. 365-378.

Richardson, C.A. 1990.
Tidal rhythms in the shell secretion of living bivalves. In: Earth's Rotation from Eons to Days. [Eds. P. Brosche and J.Sundermann], Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, pp. 215-226.

Seed, R. and Richardson, C.A. 1990.
Mytilus growth and its environmental responsiveness. In: The Neurobiology of Mytilus edulis. [Ed. G.B. Stefano], Manchester University Press, pp. 1-37.

Richardson, C.A. 1982.
The recent discoveries of tidal and other rhythms in the shell secretion of bivalves. In: The McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology [Ed. S.B. Parker], pp. 128-130.

Additional Publications

Richardson, L., Bothwell, J., Ebanks-Petrie, G., Austin, T., McCoy, C., Olynik, J. Byrne, J. Schill, S. and Turner, J.R. (2013).
Darwin Initiative Marine Parks Review: Public consultation summary. Report to Minister of the Environment, Cayman Islands Government. 88p.

Meier, R.E., McCoy, C., Richardson, L. and Turner, J.R. (2011).
Quantifying the impact of recreational and artisanal fisheries in the Cayman Islands, through the use of socio-economic questionnaires. Darwin Initiative Report. 104p.

Ridgway, I., Richardson, C.A., Scourse, J.D., Wanamaker, A.D. and Butler, P.G. (2008).
The long-lived clam Arctica islandica, a new model species for ageing research. British Society for Research on Ageing. Published online.

Wanamaker, A.D., Jr., Scourse, J.D., Richardson, C.A., Butler, P.G., Reynolds, D.J., and Ridgway, I. (2008)
Absolute chronologies from the ocean: Records from the longest-lived, non-colonial animals on Earth. PAGES News, 16(3), 4-6.

Boyd, S.E., Rees, H.L. and Richardson, C.A. 1998.
Nematodes as sensitive indicators of change at dredged material disposal sites. ICES mimeo. Recovery and protection of Marine Habitats and Ecosystems from Natural and Anthropogenic Impacts, CM 1998/V: 9.

Thompson, I.S., Richardson, C.A., Seed, R. and Walker, G. 1996.
A technique for monitoring the settlement of fouling organisms at exposed subtidal locations. Underwater Technology, 22(1), 27-28.

Richardson, C.A. and Seed, R. 1991.
The common mussel tells all? Offshore Research Focus, 86, 4.

Richardson, C.A., Seed, R. and Naylor, E. 1990.
Mussel shells; chronometers of environmental change. Marinetech Research No. 16, 1-4.

Richardson, C.A. 1987.
Growth and ageing of Malaysian cockles, Anadara granosa. In: Bay of Bengal News, 26, pp. 4-5. [Ed. L.O. Engvall], Nagaraj and Co., Madras, India.

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