Nudges and Behaviour Change
Rhedir gan School of Psychology
20.000 Credyd neu 10.000 Credyd ECTS
Trefnydd: Prof John Parkinson
Over the past few decades, psychologists, economists and others in the behavioural sciences have started to find considerable evidence that many of our decisions are made using our "gut instincts" or emotions, rather than the rational cost benefit analysis that economists have traditional proposed. In parallel, other work has shown that our specific choices and behaviours (from what products we choose to buy or whether we choose to invest in a pension scheme) can be influenced by the way in which information is framed, presented or otherwise contextualised. Related work has looked at how we can shape or modify behaviours in both the short term (e.g. get people to take the stairs instead of the lift) or the long term (e.g. get people to make healthier food or lifestyle choices). In this module, we will take a problem-based learning approach and examine these and related phenomena. Students will learn by actively addressing challenges presented in a progressively more complex and challenging way.
Topics covered in this module will include essential models of behaviour change and contemporary techniques developed to engender and support change. Students will not only develop a detailed theoretical knowledge of this domain, they will also apply their knowledge to address real-world challenges. The module is interactive and will involve traditional lectures, group work and group assignments. Each week will comprise a traditional two-hour lecture developed by the Module Organiser and a weekly seminar. The seminars will adopt a problem-based approach to learning. Before the start of each seminar students will be given background reading to complete. Then based on this reading and the previous lecture students will be expected to tackle a brief and develop a new intervention. The content of the lectures will include:
- Prospect Theory
- Social Norms
- Loss Aversion
- Message Framing
- Status Quo Bias
- Paradox of Choice
- Psychology of Pricing
- Hyperbolic Discounting
- Choice Architecture
- Type 1 & Type 2 Decision Making
- Temporal Dimensions
- Principle of Reciprocity
Students will have a superficial understanding of behaviour change, although this is likely to be largely based on the lecture material. No credible evidence of synthesising information from a range of different sources and students are likely to struggle to apply academic models and frameworks to an applied context. Answers will have a basic structure although the student’s argument is likely to contain a number of flaws in logic.
Students will have a good understanding of most areas of behaviour change, demonstrating some reading beyond the lecture material. Students will attempt to synthesise information from a range of different sources, although key details may be missed. Students will attempt to analyse academic research, and apply the research in an applied context although the analysis is likely to lack critical insight. Answers will have a clear structure with a reasonably coherent argument throughout.
Students will have an extensive understanding of all areas of behaviour change, demonstrating extensive reading beyond the lecture material, synthesising information from a range of different sources. Students will be able to critically analyse research based on its academic merit and discuss the relevance of this research in an applied context. Answers will be well structured with a compelling and coherent argument throughout..
Understand and evaluate theory, techniques and models of behaviour change including when to apply them appropriately.
Consider and appreciate the role of technology in supporting behaviour change.
Understand and apply systematic design processes to create effective change interventions.
Demonstrate the critical ability to design, develop and apply appropriate behaviour change interventions to real-world challenges and scenarios.
|Written assignment, including essay||Unit 1: Design your own Model of Behaviour Model||
A newly founded charity, “Love For All”, has approached you in order to learn more about human behaviour. Their volunteers have a diverse range of experiences, but currently they don’t have any volunteers with a background in psychology. In order to help improve their marketing and fundraising activates, they have asked you to develop a simple yet comprehensive model of human behaviour. You will need to research existing theories and models and collate the relevant theories into one novel model (presented as a figure). In order to explain your model they have also asked you to write a short synopsis explaining what theory(ies) you have used and why you think it is relevant to behaviour change.
|Written assignment, including essay||Unit 2: Designing Interventions||
You have applied for a job with the Behavioural Insights Team (aka the Nudge Unit). As part of the interview process they have given you two briefs. You have been asked to tackle ONE of the two briefs, and develop a plausible intervention.
Brief 1: Increase Blood Donations Level. The NHS Blood and Transplant Unit (NHSBT) is the organisation responsible for blood and organ donation in the UK. Although they are always looking for initiatives to increase blood donations, in 2015 it was announced that 204,000 new volunteers are needed to ensure that the UKs bloodstocks remain at a safe level for the future. Unless there is a big shift in the behaviour of the general public this situation is unlikely to change. In 2015, 40% fewer new volunteers came forward across England and North Wales to give blood last year compared to a decade ago.
As a result of this NHSBT are looking at how behavioural economics and behaviour change techniques can be used to increase both the number of people who donate blood and the frequency in which people donate blood. For a quick introduction to the topic see: https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/jun/05/sharp-drop-new-blood-donors-uk-stocks-at-risk Brief 2: Reducing meat consumption. The scientific consensus is that the Earth's climate system is unequivocally warming, and that it is extremely likely that this warming is predominantly caused by humans. Yet despite this consensus, agreeing what to do about this has proved to be a challenge. While energy generation, transport and buildings have long been a target for governments, businesses and campaigners looking to reduce emissions, the impact from food production has often been left out. But on current trends, with intensive agriculture increasingly geared towards livestock rearing, food production will be a major concern. In three decades, emissions related to agriculture and food production are likely to account for about half of the world’s available “carbon budget” - there is limited amount of carbon dioxide and its equivalents that can be poured into the atmosphere if we are to hold global warming to no more than 2C.
In order to help reduce CO2 omissions, Brighton City Council are exploring techniques that can be used to decrease the amount of meat local residents eat. This is because it has been shown that shifting to a mostly vegetarian diet, or even simply cutting down meat consumption to within accepted health guidelines, would make a large dent in greenhouse gases. Adhering to health guidelines on meat consumption could cut global food-related emissions by nearly a third by 2050, the study found, while widespread adoption of a vegetarian diet would bring down emissions by 63%. Brighton City Council’s ultimate goal is to have a meat free city by 2030, but as a first step they asked you to look into limiting the amount of meat eaten per week. See: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/jun/04/eat-less-meat-food-security https://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2013/jun/05/meat-consumption-uk-global-trends
|LLAFAR||Unit 3: Group Interventions||
Unit 3: Group Interventions 25% Love For All is now a prospering and renewed charity, thanks in part to your previous work with them. To reward you for your hard work, they have decided to give you more work (woohoo!). This time they give you complete freedom to choose a problem facing society and develop a feasible intervention.However, you have a to obey a few restrictions: You have to tackle a problem in North Wales It has to be something already existing that has been badly designed (i.e. poor nudges, architectural issue) which results in unhealthy behaviour (in the broadest sense of the term) and can be fixed rather simply. You will need to present your problem and solution in the form of an academic poster You need to consider how you will assess if your intervention is successful or not. Your budget for implementing the intervention & assessing its effectiveness is £15,000. All costs will need to be justified!
|ADDRODDIAD||Unit 4: Nudgeathon||
It's Nudgement Day! A final test of your knowledge of behaviour change theory and application. You’ll be given an unseen brief set by an organisation and you’ve got 8-hours to propose a solution in the form of a research proposal. During this time you can use any resources you like including: text books, lecture notes and the Internet Your answers will be assessed based on the following criteria: Response to the topic: Does the proposal address the problems described in the topic? Is there a clear understanding of the background problem? Innovative approach: Does the idea offer an unconventional or creative approach to the problem outlined in the topic? Is the intervention grounded in or supported by psychological theory, which provides a rational basis for expecting success? Does it demonstrate application of a new or pioneering approach? Does the proposal clearly describe how the intervention would be implemented? Does the proposal clearly describe how the intervention will be assessed? A realistic analysis of challenges that are likely to be encountered.
Strategaeth addysgu a dysgu
Each week comprises of a 2-hour lecture and a 2- hour seminar. The lectures provide you with the theoretical content, but the teaching team recognise that lecturing can be very passive and even a little dull. Consequently, the seminars will include a range of exercises and scenarios enabling you to put your theoretical knowledge into practice. In order to help you prepare for the seminar you are expected to complete the background reading.
As this is a 20 credit module, there is an expectation that students will spend 200 hours of engagement and learning over the course of the Semester. Private study and will form a key aspect of student learning, progression and success in the module. The problem-based nature of the module requires commitment and appropriate effort in order for the most to be gained from the learning experience.
Each week comprises of a 2-hour lecture and a one hour seminar. The lectures provide you with the theoretical content, but the teaching team recognise that lecturing can be very passive and even a little dull. Consequently, the seminars will include a range of exercises and scenarios enabling you to put your theoretical knowledge into practice. In order to help you prepare for the seminar you are expected to complete the background reading.
- Llythrennedd - Medrusrwydd mewn darllen ac ysgrifennu drwy amrywiaeth o gyfryngau
- Defnyddio cyfrifiaduron - Medrusrwydd wrth ddefnyddio ystod o feddalwedd cyfrifiadurol
- Hunanreolaeth - Gallu gweithio mewn ffordd effeithlon, prydlon a threfnus. Gallu edrych ar ganlyniadau tasgau a digwyddiadau, a barnu lefelau o ansawdd a phwysigrwydd
- Archwilio - Gallu ymchwilio ac ystyried dewisiadau eraill
- Adalw gwybodaeth - Gallu mynd at wahanol ac amrywiol ffynonellau gwybodaeth
- Sgiliau Rhyngbersonol - Gallu gofyn cwestiynau, gwrando'n astud ar atebion a'u harchwilio
- Dadansoddi Beirniadol & Datrys Problem - Gallu dadelfennu a dadansoddi problemau neu sefyllfaoedd cymhleth. Gallu canfod atebion i broblemau drwy ddadansoddiadau ac archwilio posibiliadau
- Cyflwyniad - Gallu cyflwyno gwybodaeth ac esboniadau yn glir i gynulleidfa. Trwy gyfryngau ysgrifenedig neu ar lafar yn glir a hyderus.
- Gwaith Tîm - Gallu cydweithio'n adeiladol ag eraill ar dasg gyffredin, ac/neu fod yn rhan o dîm gweithio o ddydd i ddydd
- Mentora - Gallu cefnogi, helpu, arwain, ysbrydoli ac/neu hyfforddi eraill
- Dadl - Gallu cyflwyno, trafod a chyfiawnhau barn neu lwybr gweithredu, naill ai gydag unigolyn neu mewn grwˆp ehangach
- Hunanymwybyddiaeth & Ystyried - Bod yn ymwybodol o'ch cryfderau, gwendidau, nodau ac amcanion eich hun. Gallu adolygu ,cloriannu a myfyrio'n rheolaidd ar eich perfformiad eich hun ac eraill.
- Arweinyddiaeth - Gallu arwain a rheoli, datblygu cynlluniau gweithredu ac amcanion, cynnig arweiniad a chyfarwyddyd i eraill, ac ymdopi â'r pwysau sy'n gysylltiedig ag awdurdod o'r fath
Sgiliau pwnc penodol
- Understand the scientific underpinnings of psychology as a discipline.
- Apply multiple perspectives to psychological issues and integrate ideas and findings across the multiple perspectives in psychology.
- Communicate psychological concepts effectively in written form.
- Communicate psychological concepts effectively in oral form.
- Be computer literate for the purpose of processing and disseminating psychological data and information.
- Retrieve and organise information effectively.
- Handle primary source material critically.
- Engage in effective teamwork for the purpose of collaborating on psychological projects.
- Be sensitive and react appropriately to contextual and interpersonal psychological factors.
- Use effectively personal planning and project management skills.
- Work effectively under pressure (time pressure, limited resources, etc) as independent and pragmatic learners.
- Problem-solve by clarifying questions, considering alternative solutions, making critical judgements, and evaluating outcomes.
- Reason scientifically and demonstrate the relationship between theory and evidence.
- Comprehend and use psychological data effectively, demonstrating a systematic knowledge of the application and limitations of various research paradigms and techniques.
- Employ evidence-based reasoning and examine practical, theoretical and ethical issues associated with the use of different methodologies, paradigms and methods of analysis in psychology.
- Be aware of ethical principles and approval procedures.
Goblygiadau o ran adnoddau ar gyfer myfyrwyr
None - although students may choose to buy the core textbook.
Rhestrau Darllen Bangor (Talis)http://readinglists.bangor.ac.uk/modules/ppp-4017.html
- Hardman D. (2009). Judgement and Decision Making: Psychological Perspectives. Chichester, U.K.: BPS Blackwell.
- Wendel, S. (2013) Designing for behaviour change: Applying psychology and behavioural economics. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly.
- Ariely, D. (2008) Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces that Shape Our Decisions. London: HarperCollins
- Gladwell, M. (2005). Blink: The power of thinking without thinking. New York, N.Y.: Little, Brown and Co.
- Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking Fast and Slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux
- Spotswood F. (eds). (2016). Beyond behaviour change: Key issues, interdisciplinary approaches and future directions. London: Policy Press.
- Thaler, R. H. (2016). Misbehaving the making of behavioural economics. London: Penguin Books.
- Thaler, R.H., & Sunstein, C.R. (2008). Nudge: Improving Decision about Health, Wealth, and Happiness. New Haven: Yale University Press
Cyrsiau sy’n cynnwys y modiwl hwn
Gorfodol mewn cyrsiau:
- N1BK: MA Business w Consumer Psychology (with Incorp Pre-Masters) year 1 (MA/BPSY1)
- N1AX: MA Business with Consumer Psychology year 1 (MA/BUSPSY)
- N1BH: MSc Business with Consumer Psychol (with Incorp Pre-Masters) year 1 (MSC/BPSY1)
- N1AY: MSc Business with Consumer Psychology year 1 (MSC/BUSPSY)
- C8CM: MSc Consumer Psychology with Business year 1 (MSC/CPSBUS)
Opsiynol mewn cyrsiau:
- C8BY: MA Psychology year 1 (MA/PSYCH)
- C8BZ: MRes Psychology year 1 (MRES/PSYCH)
- X3AZ: MSc Applied Innovation Design year 1 (MSC/AID)
- C8EY: MSc Applied Marketing Science year 1 (MSC/AMS)
- C8EF: MSc Clinical and Health Psychology year 1 (MSC/CHPSY)
- C8DX: MSc Counselling year 2 (MSC/CNSL)
- C8DU: MSc Psychology year 1 (MSC/PSY)
- C8AL: MSc Psychological Research year 1 (MSC/PSYRES)
- C808: MSci Psychology with Clinical & Health Psychology year 4 (MSCI/PHS)
- C807: MSci Psychology year 4 (MSCI/PS)