Gwybodaeth am Coronafirws (Covid-19)

Modiwl HXA-1005:
Archaeological Principles&Tech

Ffeithiau’r Modiwl

Rhedir gan School of History, Philosophy and Social Sciences

20 Credyd neu 10 Credyd ECTS

Semester 1

Trefnydd: Dr Karen Pollock

Amcanion cyffredinol

This module introduces students to the ideas that inspire and drive archaeologists. Thus, students shall explore the main principles archaeologists follow and the techniques they employ. Archaeology is a discipline that engages with the social sciences, the humanities, and the natural and environmental sciences. Archaeologists collaborate with specialists in all of these fields and consequently draw on a wide variety of materials. In this way, archaeologists use a range of skills, from large-scale excavation to field recording at isolated sites to lab-based identification of pollen grains. Together these many facets of the discipline are united in a common purpose: revealing several million years of the human past (and our evolution) through study of material remains. This course aims to provide students with a broad grounding in these topics, and in the way archaeology is studied at university level.

Cynnwys cwrs

What is archaeology?; what archaeologists study; the history of archaeological principles and techniques; Survey and prospecting 1; Survey and prospecting 2; Excavation process; Post-excavation and dating techniques; Technology and materials and experimental archaeology; Environmental Archaeology 1; Environmental Archaeology 2; People.

Meini Prawf


Threshold students (D- and D) will have done only a minimum of reading, and their work will often be based partly on lecture notes and/or basic textbooks. They will demonstrate in their written assessments some knowledge of at least parts of the relevant field, and will make at least partially-successful attempts to frame an argument which engages with archaeological controversies, but they will fail to discuss some large and vital aspects of a topic; and/or deploy only some relevant material but partly fail to combine it into a coherent whole; and/or deploy some evidence to support individual points but often fail to do so and/or show difficulty weighing data (thereby relying on unsuitable or irrelevant data when making a point). Alternatively or additionally, the presentation of the work might also be poor, with bad grammar and/or punctuation, careless typos and spelling errors, and a lack of effective and correct referencing.


Good students (B- to B+) will demonstrate a solid level of achievement and depth of knowledge in all the criteria in the C- to C+ range, and will in addition exhibit constructive engagement with different types of archaeological writing and interpretation. Ideas will be communicated effectively and written work will include a good range of reading and demonstrate a clear understanding of the issues and of the existing interpretations expressed in a well-structured, relevant, and focused argument. Students at the top end of this band will engage with and critique the ideas that they come across, and synthesise the various interpretations they find to reach their own considered conclusions. Written work will be correctly presented with references and bibliography where appropriate.


Excellent students (A- and above) will show strong achievement across all the criteria combined with particularly impressive depths of knowledge and/or subtlety of analysis. In written work, they will support their arguments with a wealth of relevant detail/examples. They will also demonstrate an acute awareness of the relevant historiography and give an account of why the conclusions reached are important within a particular archaeological debate. They may show a particularly subtle approach to possible objections, nuancing their argument in the light of counter-examples, or producing an interesting synthesis of various contrasting positions. Overall, the standards of content, argument, and analysis expected will be consistently superior to top upper-second work. Standards of presentation will also be high.

C- i C+

Students in this band (C- to C+) will demonstrate a satisfactory range of achievement or depth of knowledge of most parts of the module, and will make successful, if occasionally inconsistent, attempts to develop those skills appropriate to the study of archaeology at undergraduate level. In the case of the written assessments, the answers will attempt to focus on the question, although might drift into narrative, and will show some evidence of solid reading and research. The argument might lose direction and might not be adequately clear at the bottom of this category. Written work will be presented reasonably well with only limited errors in grammar, punctuation, and referencing, and not to the extent that they obscure meaning.

Canlyniad dysgu

  1. Present relevant arguments in presentations, essays and examinations, supported with evidence.

  2. Demonstrate a basic knowledge of the development and current practice of archaeology, as well as an understanding of different types of archaeological evidence and how they may be investigated.

  3. Show awareness that archaeology may be interpreted in different ways.

  4. Demonstrate a mastery of basic study skills, particularly the ability to follow a course of reading, make effective notes, and benefit from seminar discussions.

Dulliau asesu

Math Enw Disgrifiad Pwysau
Literature and web search 40
Essay 40
In-class test 20

Strategaeth addysgu a dysgu


11 two-hour lectures


8 two-hour workshops

Private study

162 hours of private study time


Sgiliau Trosglwyddadwy

  • Llythrennedd - Medrusrwydd mewn darllen ac ysgrifennu drwy amrywiaeth o gyfryngau
  • Rhifedd - Medrusrwydd wrth ddefnyddio rhifau ar lefelau priodol o gywirdeb
  • Defnyddio cyfrifiaduron - Medrusrwydd wrth ddefnyddio ystod o feddalwedd cyfrifiadurol
  • Hunanreolaeth - Gallu gweithio mewn ffordd effeithlon, prydlon a threfnus. Gallu edrych ar ganlyniadau tasgau a digwyddiadau, a barnu lefelau o ansawdd a phwysigrwydd
  • Archwilio - Gallu ymchwilio ac ystyried dewisiadau eraill
  • Adalw gwybodaeth - Gallu mynd at wahanol ac amrywiol ffynonellau gwybodaeth
  • Sgiliau Rhyngbersonol - Gallu gofyn cwestiynau, gwrando'n astud ar atebion a'u harchwilio
  • Dadansoddi Beirniadol & Datrys Problem - Gallu dadelfennu a dadansoddi problemau neu sefyllfaoedd cymhleth. Gallu canfod atebion i broblemau drwy ddadansoddiadau ac archwilio posibiliadau
  • Ymwybyddiaeth o ddiogelwch - Bod yn ymwybodol o'ch amgylchedd a hyder o ran cadw at reoliadau iechyd a diogelwch
  • Cyflwyniad - Gallu cyflwyno gwybodaeth ac esboniadau yn glir i gynulleidfa. Trwy gyfryngau ysgrifenedig neu ar lafar yn glir a hyderus.
  • Gwaith Tîm - Gallu cydweithio'n adeiladol ag eraill ar dasg gyffredin, ac/neu fod yn rhan o dîm gweithio o ddydd i ddydd
  • Dadl - Gallu cyflwyno, trafod a chyfiawnhau barn neu lwybr gweithredu, naill ai gydag unigolyn neu mewn grwˆp ehangach
  • Hunanymwybyddiaeth & Ystyried - Bod yn ymwybodol o'ch cryfderau, gwendidau, nodau ac amcanion eich hun. Gallu adolygu ,cloriannu a myfyrio'n rheolaidd ar eich perfformiad eich hun ac eraill.

Sgiliau pwnc penodol

  • problem solving to develop solutions to understand the past
  • understanding the complexity of change over time; in specific contexts and chronologies
  • being sensitive to the role of perceptions of the past in contemporary cultures
  • producing logical and structured arguments supported by relevant evidence
  • planning, designing, executing and documenting a programme of research, working independently
  • demonstrating a positive and can-do approach to practical problems
  • preparing effective written communications for different readerships
  • making effective and appropriate use of relevant information technology
  • making critical and effective use of information retrieval skills using paper-based and electronic resources
  • collaborating effectively in a team via experience of working in a group
  • critical evaluation of one's own and others' opinions


Rhestrau Darllen Bangor (Talis)

Rhestr ddarllen

Aitken, M.J. 1990. Science-Based Dating in Archaeology. London: Longman.

Dincauze, D.F. 2000. Environmental Archaeology: principles and practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Drewett, P.L. 1999. Field Archaeology: an Introduction. London: UCL.

Evans, J.G. and O’Conner, T.P. 1999. Environmental Archaeology: principles and methods. Stroud: Tempus.

Gibson, A. and Woods, A. 1997. Prehistoric Pottery for the Archaeologist. Leicester: Leicester University Press.

Greene, K. and T. Moore. 2010. Archaeology: an introduction (fifth edition). London: Routledge. Johnson, M. 1999. Archaeological Theory: an introduction. Blackwell: Oxford.

Renfrew, C. and Bahn, P. 2012. Archaeology: theory, methods, and practice (sixth edition). London: Thames and Hudson.

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