Modiwl HTC-2129:
Morladron a Brenhinoedd y mor

Ffeithiau’r Modiwl

Rhedir gan School of History, Philosophy and Social Sciences

20 Credyd neu 10 Credyd ECTS

Semester 2

Trefnydd: Dr Owain Jones

Amcanion cyffredinol

Bydd y modiwl hyn yn ffocysu'n agos ar hanes croesffordd diwylliannol a gwleidyddol yng nghyfnod ei anterth. Roedd teyrnas Manaw a'r Ynysoedd rhwng yr unarddegfed ganrif a'r trydydd ganrif ar ddeg yn cael ei dynnu rhwng grymoedd gwleidyddol a diwylliannol ar bob llaw, rhwng y byd Norseg i'r gogledd, y byd Gwyddelig o'i chwmpas a'r ddau frenhiniaeth bwerus oedd yn datblygu i'r dwyrain, Lloegr a'r Alban. Yn dechrau yn oes y llychlynwyr datblygodd y deyrnas i fod yn bŵer pwysig yn Môr Iwerddon cyn iddi ddod dan awdurdod brenhin Norwy, cael ei rhannu yn ddau ac ar ddiwedd y cyfnod dod yn rhan o deyrnas yr Alban.

Mae ymderchion a brwydrau brenhinoedd a gwrthryfelwyr yn rhan annatod o'r digwyddiadau hyn. Dechreua'r papur gyda frwydr Clontarf a brwydr Largs yw'r pwynt terfynol. Rhwng rhain daw Godred Crovan, y morleidr a drodd yn frenhin; Magnus Droednoeth, brenhin Norwy, yr 'olaf o'r Llychlynwyr'; Somerled, y gwrthryfelwr o'r Hebrides a ymosododd ar Glasgow yn 1164; Ragnvald, y brenhin a gadwodd gydbwysedd rhwng gofynion brenhinoedd Norwy a Lloegr y brenhin Ioan; a Magnus Olafsson, y brenhin olaf. Roedd dylanwad y ffigyrau hyn i'w deimlo dros Norwy, Gwynedd, yr Alban, Iwerddon a'r deyrnas Eingl-Normanaidd. Bydd rhaid ystyried dylanwad y gwledydd hyn ar deyrnas hir a gwasgaredig Manaw a'r Ynysoedd oedd yn cynnwys Ynysoedd Heledd (Hebrides) a rhan o dir mawr yr Alban yn ogystal a Manaw. Bydd hefyd rhaid ystyried tystiolaeth archeolegol, yn enwedig wrth feddwl am economi a diwylliant y deyrnas.

Bydd y modiwl felly yn cynnig cyfle i ystyried cyfnod ac ardal penodol mewn manylder, ond hefyd ystyriaeth o rôl y wladwriaeth hon yn hanes a hanesyddiaeth y bŷd o'i gwmpas, ardaloedd sydd fel arfer yn cael eu ystyried o fewn naratifau cenedlaethol ar wahan. Bydd felly yn codi cwestiynnau am rôl ardaloedd creiddiol a rhai ymylol, yn gofyn a ddylid ystyried y deyrnas fel gweddillyn oes y llychlynwyr neu teyrnas datblygedig yr oesoedd canol, rhan o fyd y Gwyddelod, y Norwywyr neu'r Albanwyr, ynteu endid cyfan ei hun.

Cynnwys cwrs

Darlithoedd

  1. CYFLWYNIAD: Themau a hanes cynnar; brwydr Clontarf.

  2. TEULU GODRED CROVAN: Sefydlu llinach Godred Crovan; Olaf fab Godred.

  3. SOMERLED: brenhin neu wrthryfelwr, Llychlynwr neu Wyddel?

  4. REGINALD FAB GODRED: ansefydlogrwydd a disgynyddion Somerled.

  5. HAKON, BRENHIN NORWY: diwedd y deyrnas.

  6. DIWYLLIANT: Llychlynaidd neu Wyddeleg?

  7. YR EGLWYS

  8. YR IWERDDON A CHYMRU: brenhinoedd Iwerddon, Dulyn a Gwynedd.

  9. LLOEGR A NORWY: Y byd Angefinaidd a’r byd Llychlynaidd.

  10. YR ALBAN A DIWEDD Y DEYRNAS: Teyrnas yr Alban, hanes hwyrach.

Seminarau a Ffynonellau

  1. Materion sylfaenol, cyflwyniad a daearyddiaeth Hanes Svein Asleifarson

  2. Godred Crovan, mor-leidr a brenin Cronicl Brenhinoedd Manaw a’r Ynysoedd

  3. Somerled ac Argyll Cân Marwolaeth Somerled

  4. Reginald: astudiaeth o frenin Moliant Gwyddelig Reginald

  5. Marwolaeth y deyrnas Sagas Norseg: Hákonar saga Hákonarsonar, gan Sturla Þórðarson

  6. Yr Eglwys Acta brenhinoedd Manaw

  7. Diwylliant, economi, cymdeithas Archeoleg Cestyll

  8. Iwerddon, Dulyn, a Gwynedd Bywgraffiad Gruffudd ap Cynan, Vita Griffini filii Conani

  9. Lloegr a Norwy Dogfennau Seisnig yn ymwneud a brenhinoedd Manaw a’r Ynysoedd

  10. Sesiwn adolygu

Meini Prawf

trothwy

Trothwy Bydd myfyrwyr trothwy (40au is) yn dangos ystod neu ddyfnder gwybodaeth addas ar gyfer rhannau o'r maes perthnasol o leiaf, ac yn gwneud ymgeisiadau rhannol lwyddiannus i saernio dadl sy'n ymgymryd a dadleuon hanesyddol.

da

Da Bydd myfyrwyr da (60au) yn cyrraedd lefel pendant o gyflawniad yn yr holl feini prawf a ddisgrifir yn adran 18 uchod.

ardderchog

Rhagorol Bydd myfyrwyr rhagorol (70au ac uwch) yn cyrraedd lefel pendant o gyflawniad yn yr holl feini prawf yn ogystal a dyfnder gwybodaeth syfrdanol ac/neu chraffter a chywreinder dadansoddol.

Canlyniad dysgu

    1. cyflwyno dadleuon hanesyddol eglur am agweddau ar hanes teyrnas Manaw a'r Ynysoedd mewn ffurf traethodau gradd, a chefnogi'r dadleuon gyda thystiolaeth cynradd ac eilradd.
    1. barnu dehongliadau hanesyddiaethol o'r pwnc, yn cynnwys barnau hanesyddiaethol presennol
    1. dangos gwybodaeth fanylach o agweddau penodol o'r hanes Manaw a'r Ynysoedd.
    1. deall y rhyngberthynas rhwng hanes yr ynysoedd hyn a naratifau hanesyddol cenedlaethol y gwledydd o'u cwmpas, a dangos gwybodaeth fanwl o agwedd penodol o hwn.
    1. dangos gwybodaeth eang o hanes wleidyddol a diwylliannol teyrnas Manaw a'r Ynysoedd yn y cyfnod 1014–1266.
    1. Dangos gwybodaeth fanwl o ffynhonellau cynradd penodol mewn dull eglur a’u defnyddio fel tystiolaeth.
  1. Llunio dadleuon hanesyddol a’u hatgyfnerthu gyda thystiolaeth o dan amodau arholiad.

Dulliau asesu

Math Enw Disgrifiad Pwysau
LLAFAR Cyflwyniad Llafar

Bydd eich cyflwyniad yn para 10 munud, gyda 5 munud am gwestiynau. Bydd gofyn i chi gyflwyno ar ffynhonnell benodol, ei osod mewn ei gyd-destun hanesyddol a trafod ei ddefnydd ar gyfer hanes Manaw a’r Ynysoedd. Bydd gofyn i bob myfyriwr baratoi taflen neu gyflwyniad PowerPoint (neu’r ddau) yn crynhoi prif bwyntiau’r cyflwyniad.

10
TRAETHAWD Traethawd

1 × traethawd 2,000–3,000 gair yn ymwneud ag agwedd penodol o hanes y deyrnas neu'r berthynas rhwng teyrnas Manaw a'r Ynysoedd ac ardal cyfagos (deilliannau 2 neu 3; 4; 5)

40
ARHOLIAD Arholiad

1 × arholiad 2 awr yn delio a hanes teyrnas Manaw a'r Ynysoedd, 1014–1266, a pherthynas y deyrnas ag ardaloedd o'i chwmpas (deilliannau dysgu 1, 2, 3, 4, 6)

50

Strategaeth addysgu a dysgu

Oriau
Private study 180
Lecture 10
Seminar 10

Sgiliau Trosglwyddadwy

  • Llythrennedd - Medrusrwydd mewn darllen ac ysgrifennu drwy amrywiaeth o gyfryngau
  • Defnyddio cyfrifiaduron - Medrusrwydd wrth ddefnyddio ystod o feddalwedd cyfrifiadurol
  • Hunanreolaeth - Gallu gweithio mewn ffordd effeithlon, prydlon a threfnus. Gallu edrych ar ganlyniadau tasgau a digwyddiadau, a barnu lefelau o ansawdd a phwysigrwydd
  • Archwilio - Gallu ymchwilio ac ystyried dewisiadau eraill
  • Adalw gwybodaeth - Gallu mynd at wahanol ac amrywiol ffynonellau gwybodaeth
  • Sgiliau Rhyngbersonol - Gallu gofyn cwestiynau, gwrando'n astud ar atebion a'u harchwilio
  • Dadansoddi Beirniadol & Datrys Problem - Gallu dadelfennu a dadansoddi problemau neu sefyllfaoedd cymhleth. Gallu canfod atebion i broblemau drwy ddadansoddiadau ac archwilio posibiliadau
  • Cyflwyniad - Gallu cyflwyno gwybodaeth ac esboniadau yn glir i gynulleidfa. Trwy gyfryngau ysgrifenedig neu ar lafar yn glir a hyderus.
  • Dadl - Gallu cyflwyno, trafod a chyfiawnhau barn neu lwybr gweithredu, naill ai gydag unigolyn neu mewn grwˆp ehangach

Sgiliau pwnc penodol

  • problem solving to develop solutions to understand the past
  • understanding the complexity of change over time; in specific contexts and chronologies
  • being sensitive to the differences, or the "otherness" of the past, and the difficulty to using it as a guide to present or future action
  • being sensitive to the role of perceptions of the past in contemporary cultures
  • producing logical and structured arguments supported by relevant evidence
  • planning, designing, executing and documenting a programme of research, working independently
  • marshalling and critically appraising other people's arguments, including listening and questioning
  • demonstrating a positive and can-do approach to practical problems
  • presenting effective oral presentations for different kinds of audiences, including academic and/or audiences with little knowledge of history
  • preparing effective written communications for different readerships
  • making effective and appropriate forms of visual presentation
  • making effective and appropriate use of relevant information technology
  • making critical and effective use of information retrieval skills using paper-based and electronic resources
  • appreciating and being sensitive to different cultures and dealing with unfamiliar situations
  • critical evaluation of one's own and others' opinions

Adnoddau

Rhestr ddarllen

LLYFRYDDIAETH

ASTUDIAETHAU CYFFREDINOL

Y deyrnas yn gyfun R. Andrew McDonald, Manx Kingship in its Irish Sea Setting 1187–1229 (Dulyn, 2007) Ian Beuermann, Man Amongst Kings and Bishops: What Was the Reason for Godred Olafsson’s Joruney to Norway in 1152/53? (Oslo, 2002) Ian Beuermann, Masters of the Narrow Sea: Forgotten Challenges to Norwegian Rule in Man and the Isles, 1079–1266 (Oslo, 2007) People of Medieval Scotland Database (POMS): http://www.poms.ac.uk/ Bas-data defnyddiol iawn gyda cyfeiriadau at frenhinoedd Manaw, disgynyddion Somerled, brenhinoedd yr Alban, ac yn y blaen.

Manaw A. W. Moore, History of the Isle of Man (2 gyfrol, 1900, ailargraffwyd 1977) R. H. Kinvig, The Isle of Man (1975) G. V. C. Young, The History of the Isle of Man Under the Norse (1981)

Ynysoedd Heledd R. Andrew McDonald, The Kingdom of the Isles: Scotland's Western Seaboard c.1100–c.1336 (East Linton, 1997) A. Woolf, ‘The Age of Sea-Kings: 900-1300’, yn The Argyll Book, gol. gan D. Omand, tt. 94-109 (Caeredin, 2004) Michael Brown, The Wars of Scotland 1214–1371 (Caeredin, 2004), yn enwedig pennod 4, 'The Sea Kings', a phennod 12, 'Lord of the Isles' G. W. S. Barrow, ‘The Winning of the West’, yn ei Kingship and Unity in Scotland 1100–1300 (Llundain, 1981)

Hanesyddiaeth

Cyd-destun Norwegian Domination and the Norse World c.1100–c.1400, gol. Steinar Imsen (2011) B. Hudson, Viking Pirates and Christian Princes: Dynasty, Religion and Empire in the North Atlantic (Rhydychen, 2005) The British Isles 1100–1500: Comparisons, Contrasts and Connections, gol. gan R. R. Davies (Caeredin, 1988) R. Frame, The Political Development of the British Isles 1100–1400 (Rhydychen, 1990) G. W. S. Barrow, Feudal Britain: the Completion of the Medieval Kingdom 1066–1314 (Llundain, 1956) R. R. Davies, The First English Empire: Power and Identities in the British Isles, 1093–1334 (Rhydychen, 2000) R. R. Davies, Domination and Conquest: the Experience of Ireland, Scotland and Wales, 1100–1300 (Caergrawnt, 1990) S. Duffy and S. Foran (eds.), The English Isles: Cultural Transmission and Political Conflict in Britain and Ireland, 1100–1500 (Dulyn, 2013)

FFYNONELLAU CYNRADD Cyffredinol Chronicle of the Kings of Mann and the Isles/Recortys Reeaghyn Vannin as ny hEllanyn, gol. gan George Broderick a Brian Stowell (Caeredin, 1973) Golygiad henach, heb gyfieithiad ond gyda nodiadau a thrafodaeth: Cronica regum Mannie et Insularum, gol. gan P. A. Munch (Christiania, 1860) Early Sources of Scottish History, 500–1286, gol. gan A. O. Anderson (Caeredin, 1922) Monumenta de Insula Manniae, gol. gan J. R. Oliver (2 gyfrol, Douglas, 1860–1862)

Norwy a’r Byd Llychlynaidd Heimskringla gan Snorri Sturlusson, ar gael fel: Heimskringla: History of the Kings of Norway, gol. gan Lee M. Hollander (Austin, TX, 1964) Heimskringla: a History of the Norse Kings, gol. gan S. Laing (Llundain, 1907), ar gael ar http://omacl.org/Heimskringla/ Orkneyinga Saga: the History of the Earls of Orkney, gol. gan H. Palsson a P. Edwards (Llundain, 1978) Historia Norwegie, gol. gan I. Ekrem, L. B. Mortensen a P. Fisher (Copenhagen, 2003) Hakon Hakonsson’s Saga, gol. gan G. Vigfusson, Icelandic Sagas II, Rolls Series 88/2 (Llundain, 1887)

Cymru Vita Griffini Filii Conani: the Medieval Latin Life of Gruffudd ap Cynan, gol. gan P. Russell (Caerdydd, 2005)

Iwerddon Cogadh Gaedhel re Gallaibh: the War of the Gaedhil with the Gaill, gol. Gan J. H. Todd (Llundain, 1867) Annals of Ulster, ar gael ar http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100001A/index.html, http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100001B/index.html, www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100001C/index.html.

Yr Alban Early Sources of Scottish History, 500–1286, gol. gan A. O. Anderson (Caeredin, 1922)

Lloegr William of Newburgh, Historia rerum Anglicarum, ed. and tr. P. G. Walsh and M. J. Kennedy (Warminster, 1998), pp. 102–7 [stori Wimund, esgob yr Ynysoedd a mynach Furness]

Barddoniaeth: The Triumph Tree: Scotland's Earliest Poetry, yn enwedig ‘death song of Somerled’ a ‘Praise of Reginald of Man’, gol. gan T. O. Clancy (Caeredin, 1998) Gweler hefyd ‘A Poem in Praise of Raghnall, King of Man’, gol. gan B. O’Cuiv, Eigse 8 (1956–1957) Wilson McLeod, Divided Gaels: Gaelic Cultural Identities in Scotland and Ireland c.1200–1650, (Rhydychen, 2004) rhestr o gerddi ar tt. 223–230

Dogfenni gweinyddol: ‘Manx Synodal Statutes’, gol. gan C. R. Cheney, yn Cambridge Medieval Celtic Studies 1984 (dau rhan)

Dogfenni hwyrach ond defnyddiol: The Book of Clanranald yn A. Cameron, Reliquiae Celticae: Texts, Papers and Studies in Gaelic Literature and Philology, gol. gan A, MacBain a J. Kennedy (Inverness, 1894)

Astudiaethau Else Mundal, 'King Magnús Bareleg's Adventures in the West: the Making of a King's Saga', yn The Viking Age: Ireland and the West. Papers from the Proceedings of the Fifteenth Viking Congress, gol. gan John Sheehan a Donnchadh Ó Corráin (Dulyn, 2010), tt. 240–47 Ian Beuermann, 'Reading Political History in the Manx Chronicle and Orkneyinga Saga', Nordistica Tartuensia 8 (2003) G. W. S. Barrow, ‘The Sources for the History of the Highlands in the Middle Ages’, yn The Middle Ages in the Highlands, gol. gan L. MacLean (Inverness, 1981) M. Ní Mhaonaigh, ‘Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib: Some Dating Considerations’, Peritia 9 (1995), 296¬–339 A. Woolf, ‘The Song of the Death of Somerled and the Destruction of Glasgow in 1153’, Sydney Society for Scottish History Journal 14 (2013), 1–11

THEMÂU A PHYNCIAU Y DEYRNAS EI HUN Y cyfnod cyn 1014 A. A. M. Duncan ac A. L. Brown, 'Argyll and the Western Isles in the Early Middle Ages', Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 90 (1956–1957), 192–220. Clare Downham, Viking Kings of Britain and Ireland: the Dynasty of Ivarr to AD 1014 (Caeredin, 2007) Yr unarddegfed ganrif B. Hudson, Viking Pirates and Christian Princes: Dynasty, Religion and Empire in the North Atlantic (Rhydychen, 2005) R. Power, ‘Magnus Barelegs’ Expeditions to the West’, Scottish Historical Review 65 (1986) S. Duffy, ‘Emerging from the Mist: Ireland and Man in the Eleventh Century’, yn Mannin Revisited: Twelve Essays on Manx Culture and Environment, gol. gan P. Davey a D. Finlayson, (Caeredin, 2002) tt. 53–61 Y ddeuddegfed ganrif Ffyrdd gwahanol o ailgreu digwyddiadau yn dilyn marwolaeth Godred Crovan: Duffy, ‘Irishmen and Islesmen’; Benjamin Hudson, Viking Pirates, 188–203; R. Power, ‘Magnus Barelegs’ Expeditions to the West’, Scottish Historical Review 65 (1986), 107–32 a ‘Meeting in Norway: Norse-Gaelic Relations in the Kingdom of Man and the Isles, 1090-1270’, Saga-Book 2005, 5–66. Alex Woolf, 'The origins and ancestry of Somerled: Gofraid mac Fergusa and the Annals of the Four Masters', Medieval Scandinavia 15 (2005), 199–213 John Marsden, Somerled and the Emergence of Gaelic Scotland (Caeredin, 2000) R. Andrew McDonald, 'Rebels Without a Cause? The Relations of Fergus of Galloway and Somerled of Argyll with the Scottish Kings, 1153–1164', yn Alba: Celtic Scotland in the Medieval Era, gol. gan E. J. Cowan ac R. Andrew McDonald (East Linton, 2000), tt. 166–86. Yr holl gyfrol yn ddefnyddiol. W. D. H. Sellar, 'The Origins and Ancestry of Somerled', Scottish Historical Review 45 (1966), 123–42 Y drydedd ganrif ar ddeg W. D. H. Sellar, 'Hebridean Sea Kings: The Successors of Somerled, 1164–1316', yn Alba: Celtic Scotland in the Medieval Era, gol. gan E. J. Cowan ac R. Andrew McDonald (East Linton, 2000), tt. 187–218. E. J. Cowan, 'Norwegian Sunset, Scottish Dawn: Hakon IV and Alexander III', yn Scotland in the Reign of Alexander III, 1249–1286, gol. gan N. Reid (Caeredin, 1990), tt. 103–31 R. Lustig, 'The Treaty of Perth: a Re-Examination, Scottish Historical Review 58 (1979), 35–57 Seán Duffy, 'The Bruce Brothers and the Irish Sea World, 1306–29', Cambridge Medieval Celtic Studies 21 (1991), 55–86

Hanes hwyrach Manaw Seán Duffy, 'The Bruce Brothers and the Irish Sea World, 1306–29', Cambridge Medieval Celtic Studies 21 (1991), 55–86 C. McNamee, The Wars of the Bruces (East Linton, 1997)

Hanes hwyrach Arglwyddiaeth yr Ynysoedd Simon Kingston, Ulster and the Isles in the Fifteenth Century: the Lordship of the Clann Domhnaill of Antrim (Dulyn, 2004) Wilson McLeod, Divided Gaels: Gaelic Cultural Identities in Scotland and Ireland c.1200–1650, (Rhydychen, 2004) yn enwedig tt. 1–55 A. Grant, ‘Scotland’s Celtic Fringe in the Late Middle Ages: the MacDonald Lords of the Isles and the Kingdom of Scotland’, yn The British Isles 1100–1500, gol. gan R. R. Davies

THEMÂU EHANGACH J. V. Sigurðsson, ‘The appearance and personal abilities of goðar, jarlar, and konungar: Iceland, Orkney and Norway’, yn West Over Sea: Studies in Scandinavian Sea-Borne Expansion and Settlement Before 1300, gol. gan Beverley Ballin Smith ac eraill (Leiden, 2007) A. Woolf, ‘The Wood Beyond the World: Jämtland and the Norwegian Kings’, yn West Over Sea: Studies in Scandinavian Sea-Borne Expansion and Settlement Before 1300, gol. gan Beverley Ballin Smith ac eraill (Leiden, 2007), tt. 153–68 A. McKerral, 'West Highland Mercenaries in Ireland', Scottish Historical Review 30 (1951), 1–29

NORWY A’R BYD LLYCHLYNAIDD

Norwy Knut Helle, ‘The Norwegian Kingdom: Succession Disputes and Consolidation’, yn The Cambridge History of Scandinavia, gol. gan Knut Helle (Caergrawnt, 2002), tt. 369–91 Sverre Bagge, 'The Norwegian Monarchy in the Thirteenth Century', yn Kings and Kingship in Medieval Europe, gol. gan A. J. Duggan (Llundain, 1993) Knut Helle, Cambridge History of Scandinavia vol 1: Prehistory to 1520 (Caergrawnt, 2003), yn enwedig penawdau 7, 8, 12, 13 The Norwegian Domination and the Norse World c.1100–c.1400, gol. Steinar Imsen (2011) R. Power, ‘Magnus Barelegs’ Expeditions to the West’, Scottish Historical Review 65 (1986) R. Power, ‘Meeting in Norway: Norse-Gaelic Relations in the Kingdom of Man and the Isles, 1090-1270’, Saga-Book 2005

Skattlands arall Norwy Knut Helle, 'The Position of the Faroes and Other 'Tributary Lands' in the Medieval Norwegian Dominion', yn Viking and Norse in the North Atlantic, gol. gan Andras Mortensen a Símun V. Arge (Tórshavn, 2005), tt. 11–21 Taxes, Tributes and Tributary Lands in the Making of the Scandinavian Kingdoms in the Middle Ages, gol. gan S. Imsen (Trondheim, 2011)

YR ALBAN People of Medieval Scotland Database (POMS): http://www.poms.ac.uk/ Bas-data defnyddiol iawn gyda cyfeiriadau at frenhinoedd Manaw, disgynyddion Somerled, brenhinoedd yr Alban, ac yn y blaen.

Y deyrnas ei hun A. Woolf, From Pictland to Alba: 789–1070 (Caeredin, 2007) G. W. S. Barrow, The Kingdom of the Scots (Llundain, 1973); The Anglo-Norman Era in Scottish History (Rhydychen, 1980); a Kingship and Unity: Scotland, 1000–1306 (Llundain, 1981) Dauvit Broun, 'Anglo-French Acculturation and the Irish Element in Scottish History', yn Britain and Ireland 900–1330: Insular Responses to Medieval European Change, gol. gan B. Smith (Caergrawnt, 1999) Richard Oram, Domination and Lordship: Scotland 1070–1230 (Caeredin, 2011) Michael Brown, The Wars of Scotland 1214–1371 (Caeredin, 2004)

Ardaloedd ymylol y deyrnas R. Oram, The Lordship of Galloway (Caeredin, 2000) R. Andrew McDonald, 'Rebels Without a Cause? The Relations of Fergus of Galloway and Somerled of Argyll with the Scottish Kings, 1153–1164', yn Alba: Celtic Scotland in the Medieval Era, gol. gan E. J. Cowan ac R. Andrew McDonald (East Linton, 2000), tt. 166–86. Yr holl gyfrol yn ddefnyddiol. K. Stringer, 'Periphery and Core in Thirteenth-Century Scotland: Alan son of Roland, Lord of Galloway and Constable of Scotland', yn Medieval Scotland. Crown, Lordship and Community, gol. gan A. Grant ac R. J. Stringer (Caeredin, 1993), tt. 82–112 E. J. Cowan, 'Norwegian Sunset, Scottish Dawn: Hakon IV and Alexander III', yn Scotland in the Reign of Alexander III, 1249–1286, gol. gan N. Reid (Caeredin, 1990), tt. 103–31

LLOEGR

Yr ‘Ymerodraeth Angefinaidd’ Robert S. Babcock, 'Clients of the Angevin King: Rhys ap Gruffudd and Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair Compared', yn Ireland and Wales in the Middle Ages, gol. gan Karen Jankulak a Jonathan M. Wooding (Dulyn, 2007), tt. 229–245 J. Gillingham, The English in the Twelfth Century: Imperialism, National Identity and Political Values (Woodbridge, 2000) Seán Duffy, ‘Henry II and England's insular neighbours’, in Christopher Harper-Bill and Nicholas Vincent, eds, Henry II: New interpretations (Woodbridge, 2007), pp. 129–53 R. Bartlett, The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change, 950–1350 (London, 1993)

YR IWERDDON

Brenhinoedd Iwerddon a’u Rhyfeloedd S. Duffy, 'Irishmen and Islesmen in the kingdoms of Dublin and Man', Ériu 43 (1992), 93–133 F. J. Byrne, Irish Kings and High Kings (Dulyn, 1973) A. Candon, 'Muirchertach Ua Briain, Politics and Naval Activity in the Irish Sea, 1075–1119', yn Keimelia: Studies in Medieval Archaeology and History in Memory of Tom Delaney, gol. gan G. Mac Niocaill a P. F. Wallace (Galway, 1988), tt. 397–415 D. O’Corrain, Ireland Before the Normans (Dulyn, 1972) Seán Duffy, ‘The Western World’s Tower of Honour and Dignity’: the Career of Muirchertach Ua Briain in Context’, yn Ireland and Europe in the twelfth century: reform and renewal, gol. gan Damian Bracken a Dagmar Ó Riain-Raedel (Dulyn, 2006), tt. 56–73

Teyrnas Dulyn S. Duffy, 'Irishmen and Islesmen in the kingdoms of Dublin and Man', Ériu 43 (1992), 93–133 C. Downham, 'Living on the Edge: Scandinavian Dublin in the Twelfth Century', yn West Over Sea: Studies in Scandinavian Sea-Borne Expansion and Settlement Before 1300, gol. gan Beverley Ballin Smith ac eraill (Leiden, 2007), tt. 33–52 O Donnabhain & Hallgrimsson, ‘Dublin: the Biological Identity of the Hiberno-Norse Town’, yn Medieval Dublin 2 (2001)

Iwerddon Eingl-Normanaidd Robin Frame, Ireland and Britain, 1170–1450 (Llundain, 1998) T. McNeill, Anglo-Norman Ulster (Caeredin, 1980) Katherine Simms, 'Relations with the Irish', yn Law and Disorder in Thirteenth-Century Ireland, gol. gan J. Lydon (Dulyn, 1997), tt. 66–86 Maire Therese Flanagan, Irish Society, Anglo-Norman Settlers, Angevin Kingship: Interactions in Ireland in the Late Twelfth Century (Rhydychen, 1989)

CYMRU Colmán Etchingham, 'Viking-Age Gwynedd and Ireland: Political Relations', yn Ireland and Wales in the Middle Ages, gol. gan Karen Jankulak a Jonathan M. Wooding (Dulyn, 2007), tt. 149–67 K. Maund, Ireland, Wales and England in the Eleventh Century (Woodbridge, 1991)

CYSYLLTIADAU AR DRAWS MÔR IWERDDON Colman Etchingham, ‘North Wales, Ireland and the Isles: the Insular Viking Zone’, Peritia 15 (2001), 145–87 Ian Beuermann, 'Sveinn Asleifarson and the Irish Sea: Mestan Ójafna∂armann i Vestrlöndum', yn Scandinavian Scotland- Twenty Years After, gol. gan Alex Woolf, tt. 131–68 A. Candon, 'Muirchertach Ua Briain, Politics and Naval Activity in the Irish Sea, 1075–1119', yn Keimelia: Studies in Medieval Archaeology and History in Memory of Tom Delaney, gol. gan G. Mac Niocaill a P. F. Wallace (Galway, 1988), tt. 397–415 E. Okasha, ‘From Scotland to Normandy: The Celtic Sea Route of the Vikings’, yn West Over Sea: Studies in Scandinavian Sea-Borne Expansion and Settlement Before 1300, gol. gan Beverley Ballin Smith ac eraill (Leiden, 2007) B. T. Hudson, ‘The Changing Economy of the Irish Sea Province: AD 900–1300’, yn Britain and Ireland 900–1300: Insular Responses to Medieval European Change, gol. gan B. Smith (Caergrawnt, 1999)

YR EGLWYS A. Ashley, The Church in the Isle of Man (Efrog, 1958)

Troedigaeth i Gristnogaeth L. Abrams, ‘Conversion and the Church in the Hebrides in the Viking Age: “A Very Difficult Thing Indeed”’, yn West Over Sea: Studies in Scandinavian Sea-Borne Expansion and Settlement Before 1300, gol. gan Beverley Ballin Smith ac eraill (Leiden, 2007) D. M. Wilson, The Vikings in the Isle of Man (Aarhus, 2008), pennod 3

Esgobaeth Manaw a’r Sudreyar A. Ashley, The Church in the Isle of Man (Efrog, 1958) A. M. Cubbon, ‘The Early Church in the Isle of Man’, yn The Early Church in Western Britain and Ireland, gol. gan S. M. Pearce (Rhydychen, 1982), tt. 257–82 Ian Beuermann, 'Metropolitan Ambitions and Politics: Kells-Mellifont and Man and the Isles', Peritia 16 (2003) D. E. R. Watt, ‘Bishops in the Isles Before 1203: Bibliography and Biographical Lists’, Innes Review 45 (1994) A. Woolf, ‘The Diocese of the Sudreyar’, yn Ecclesia Nidrosiensis 1153–1537, gol. gan Steinar Imsen, tt. 171–81 A. O. Anderson, ‘Wimund, Bishop and Pretender’, Scottish Historical Review 7 (1909) R. A. McDonald, ‘Monk, Bishop, Impostor, Pretender: the Place of Wimund in Twelfth-Century Scotland’, Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness 58 (1994)

Esgobaeth yr Ynysoedd I. B. Cowan, ‘The Medieval Church in Argyll and the Isles’, Scottish Church History Society Records 20 (1978)

Cymharol B. E. Crawford, ‘The Bishopric of Orkney’, yn Ecclesia Nidrosiensis 1153–1537, gol. gan Steinar Imsen, tt. 143–57

DIWYLLIANT ***B. R. S. Megaw, ‘Norseman and Native in the Kingdom of the Isles: a Re-Assessment of the Manx Evidence’, yn Man and Environment in the Isle of Man (1978), gol. gan P. J. Davey, tt. 265-314 James H. Barrett, 'Beyond War or Peace: the Study of Culture Contact in Viking Age Scotland', yn Contact, Continuity, and Collapse: the Norse Colonization of the North Atlantic, gol. gan James H. Barrett (Turnhout, 2003), tt. 73–112 Andrew Jennings ac Arne Kruse, 'An Ethnic Enigma- Norse, Pict and Gael in the Western Isles', yn Viking and Norse in the North Atlantic, gol. gan Andras Mortensen a Símun V. Arge (Tórshavn, 2005), tt. 284–96 Per Sveaas Andersen, 'Norse Settlement in the Hebrides: What Happened to the Natives and What Happened to the Norse Immigrants', yn People and Places in Northern Europe 500–1600, gol. gan Ian M. Wood a Niels Lund (Woodbridge, 1991), tt. 131–47 Andrew Jennings ac Arne Kruse, 'One Coast- Three Peoples: Names and Ethnicity in the Scottish West During the Early Viking Period', yn Scandinavian Scotland- Twenty Years After, gol. gan Alex Woolf, tt.75–103 Niall Sharples a Rachel Smith, 'Norse Settlement in the Western Isles', yn Scandinavian Scotland- Twenty Years After, gol. gan Alex Woolf, tt. 103–30 Diwylliant Dulyn: O Donnabhain & Hallgrimsson, ‘Dublin: the Biological Identity of the Hiberno-Norse Town’, yn Medieval Dublin 2 (2001) Wilson McLeod, Divided Gaels: Gaelic Cultural Identities in Scotland and Ireland c.1200–1650, (Rhydychen, 2004) yn enwedig tt. 1–55 R. A. McDonald, ‘Coming in from the Margins: the Descendants of Somerled and Cultural Accommodation in the Hebrides, 1164–1317’, yn Britain and Ireland 900–1300: Insular Responses to Medieval European Change, gol. gan B. Smith (Caergrawnt, 1999)

Iaith/Llenyddiaeth M. Barnes, ‘Norse in the British Isles’, yn Viking Revaluations (1993), gol. gan A. Faulkes & R. Perkins, tt. 76–78

Enwau Llefydd Barbara E. Crawford, 'Introduction- the Study of Place-Names', yn Scandinavian Settlement in Northern Britain: Thirteen Studies of Place-Names in Their Historical Context, gol. gan Barbara E. Crawford (Leicester, 1995), tt. 1–15 Anne Johnston, 'Norse Settlement Patterns in Coll and Tiree', yn Scandinavian Settlement in Northern Britain: Thirteen Studies of Place-Names in Their Historical Context, gol. gan Barbara E. Crawford (Leicester, 1995), tt. 108–26

ECONOMI A. O. Johnsen, 'The Payments from the Hebrides and the Isle of Man to the Crown of Norway', Scottish Historical Review 58 (1969), 18–34 J. H. Barrett, ‘The Pirate Fishermen: The Political Economy of a Medieval Maritime Society’, yn West Over Sea: Studies in Scandinavian Sea-Borne Expansion and Settlement Before 1300, gol. gan Beverley Ballin Smith ac eraill (Leiden, 2007) B. T. Hudson, ‘The Changing Economy of the Irish Sea Province: AD 900–1300’, yn Britain and Ireland 900–1300: Insular Responses to Medieval European Change, gol. gan B. Smith (Caergrawnt, 1999) I. Beuermann, ‘Not Worth the King’s While: Manx Hebridean Payments to Norway and the Insular Economy’, yn Taxes, Tributes and Tributary Lands in the Making of the Scandinavian Kingdoms in the Middle Ages, gol. gan S. Imsen (Trondheim, 2011), tt. 77–102 R. Oram, ‘Ouncelands, Quarterlands and Pennylands in the Western Isles, Man and Galloway: Tribute Payments and Military Levies in the Norse West, yn Taxes, Tributes and Tributary Lands in the Making of the Scandinavian Kingdoms in the Middle Ages, gol. gan S. Imsen (Trondheim, 2011), tt. 57–75

ARCHEOLEG P. J. Davey, ‘At the Crossroads of Power and Cultural Influence: Manx Archaeology in the High Middle Ages’, yn Mannin Revisited, gol. gan P. J. Davey a D. Finlayson (Caeredin, 2002), tt. 81–104 Berit J. Sellevold, 'Life and Death Among the Picts and Vikings at Westness', yn The Viking Age: Ireland and the West. Papers from the Proceedings of the Fifteenth Viking Congress, gol. gan John Sheehan a Donnchadh Ó Corráin (Dulyn, 2010), tt. 369–79 G. Broderick, 'Tynwald: a Manx Cult-Site and Institution of Pre-Scandinavian Origin?' Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies 46 D. M. Wilson, The Vikings in the Isle of Man (Aarhus, 2008), yn enwedig pennod 4, 5, a casgliad

Cerrig Cerfiedig Ian Fisher, 'Norwegian Crosses in the Hebrides and Shetland?', yn The Viking Age: Ireland and the West. Papers from the Proceedings of the Fifteenth Viking Congress, gol. gan John Sheehan a Donnchadh Ó Corráin (Dulyn, 2010), tt. 107–112 P. M. C. Kermode, Manx Crosses (Llundain, 1907 neu Balgavies, 1994, gyda chyflwyniad gan David M. Wilson)

Diwylliant Gweledol R. Andrew McDonald, 'Images of Hebridean Overlordship in the Late Twelfth and Early Thirteenth Centuries: the Seal of Raonall MacSorley', Scottish Historical Review 74 (1995), 129–43 J. Robinson, The Lewis Chessmen (2004)

Cestyll B. H. StJ. O’Neil, ‘Castle Rushen, Isle of Man’, Archaeologia 94 (1951), 1–26 D. Freke, The Peel Castle Dig (Douglas, 1995)

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