# Modiwlau cwrs D448 | BSC/ECON4BSC Environmental Conservation

### Modiwlau Gorfodol

#### Semester 1

• ONS-1001: Environmental data & analysis (20)
This module, unlike most others, concentrates on giving the student the basic literature searching, numerical and statistical skills required for pursuing the rest of their respective programmes of study. The course relies heavily on computer-based material and so the student also learns how to use and evaluate on-line information, as well as how to converse, discuss and learn via the Blackboard software package. The course starts with an introduction to the Information Literacy Cycle, issues of plagiarism and how to avoid it, and good practice for citing and referencing. Thereafter, the course concentrates on key aspects of any science degree. Lectures introduced include: distributions of populations within scientific data; ideas of probability; unit systems used within science; accuracy and precision; algebraic manipulation; graphing linear systems; and coping with non-linearity in natural systems. Included as part of this will be an introduction to the use of excel and powerpoint - two software packages which are almost essential in the life of an undergraduate student. Following these mainly numerically-related lectures, the module focuses on the scientific method, hypothesis setting and testing; these leading to the fundamental ideas concerning experimental design. These concepts then extend to discussing the importance of replication in scientific datasets. Finally, an introduction to specific statistical tests (parametric and non-parametric) is presented. Library searching and referencing Introduction to distributions within scientific data Ideas of probability Description of distributions Preamble to MS Excel On-line exercises Presentation with MS Powerpoint Unit systems used in science Accuracy & precision. How many decimal places? Introduction to algebraic manipulation Graphing of linear systems Coping with non-linearity in nature (logs etc.) The scientific method: hypothesis setting and testing Introduction to experimental design The importance of replication in scientific datasets Examples of statistical tests: parametric versus non-parametric Regression and correlation ANOVA
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• DXX-1002: Env. Management & Conservation (20)
Introduction to environmental management and conservation (why is it important, who does it and where does it occur). The concepts of landscape multipurpose land-use, interpretation and evaluation. Environmental ethics, conflicts and rights. Introduction to Marine conservation issues and to Agri-environment schemes. There will be a field trip to view examples of conflicts between conservation and other land uses. Methods to assess impacts on the environment (e.g. carbon footprints, environmental impact assessment). There will be a field trip to see how the impacts of large industrial projects are being managed and reduced. Economics and the environment: what’s the relationship? The economic problem and the importance of economics. How individual decisions add up to form social phenomena. Fundamentals of economic analysis. Markets, market failures and interventions. Institutions , incentives and interventions by governments. Growth and trade. Using economic analysis to understand the world and inform decisions. There will be a field trip to illustrate economic issues in the environment.
• DXX-1006: Field Course: Making Snowdonia (20)
This module combines lectures and fieldwork to provide a broad overview of the processes that have given rise to the distinctive features of the Snowdonian landscape. The module focuses on the five key themes of Geology, Ecology, Forestry, Agriculture and Society. Lectures provide a broad overview of the topics and introduce relevant theoretical and conceptual points. The main areas covered will include: underlying geology; glaciation; post-glacial ecology; soil formation; political history of community, private and state forestry; history of human habitation and resource use; the formation and development of the national park. Students will be taken to key sites that demonstrate how these processes interact and relate to particular places.
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DXC-1006: Gwaith Maes: Creu Eryri (20)
Bydd y modiwl hwn yn cyfuno darlithoedd a gwaith maes i roi trosolwg bras ar y prosesau sydd wedi creu nodweddion arbennig tirwedd Eryri. Bydd y modiwl yn canolbwyntio ar bum brif thema, sef daeareg, ecoleg, coedwigaeth, amaeth a chymdeithas. Bydd y darlithoedd yn rhoi trosolwg bras ar y pynciau ac yn cyflwyno pwyntiau damcaniaethol a chysyniadol perthnasol. Y prif feysydd dan sylw fydd: daeareg waelodol; rhewlifiant; ecoleg ôl-rewlifol; ffurfio pridd; hanes gwleidyddol y gymuned; coedwigaeth breifat a choedwigaeth y wladwriaeth; hanes preswyliad dynol a defnydd adnoddau; hanes ffurfio a datblygu’r parc cenedlaethol. Bydd myfyrwyr yn cael eu hebrwng i safleoedd allweddol sy’n dangos sut y mae’r prosesau hyn yn rhyngweithio ac yn berthnasol i leoedd penodol.

#### Semester 2

• DXX-1001: Ecosystem Function & Services (20)
Lectures 1. Introduction ecosystem concepts and matter flows (AS) 2. Ecosystem services (SP) 3. Ecosystem development (AS) 4. Land atmosphere interactions (MR) 5. Biodiversity and ecosystem function (AS) 6. Climate and microclimate (MR) 7. Introduction to soils and their classification (DLJ) 8. Soil formation (DLJ) 9. Soil mineralogy and weathering (DLJ) 10. Soil organic matter and chemical properties (DC) 11. 18 Ecosystem productivity (MR) 12. Ecosystem collapse (DLJ) 13. Above and belowground biodiversity (AS) 14. Root processes (AS) 15. Decomposition, destructors and saprotrophic organisms (MDH) 16. Nutrient cycling in ecosystems (PWH) 17. Plant structure, cells, leaves and needles (KS) 18. Photosynthesis types, pigments, environmental control (KS) 19. Transpiration (KS) 20. Plant stress tolerance I (moisture stress) (KS) 21. Water uptake by plants (KS) 22. Plant stress tolerance II (heat and cold) 23. Deserts (MDH) 24. Temperate grasslands (DC) 25. Tropical forests (MR) 26. Wetlands and salt marshes (AS) 27. Boreal forest and polar ecosystems (PWH) Practicals a) Soil Field Trip (Davey Jones to lead) b) Salt marsh ecology (Mark Rayment to lead) c) Microbial diversity (Mike Hale to lead) d) Plant ecophysiology (Katherine Steele to lead)
• ONS-1001: Environmental data & analysis
This module, unlike most others, concentrates on giving the student the basic literature searching, numerical and statistical skills required for pursuing the rest of their respective programmes of study. The course relies heavily on computer-based material and so the student also learns how to use and evaluate on-line information, as well as how to converse, discuss and learn via the Blackboard software package. The course starts with an introduction to the Information Literacy Cycle, issues of plagiarism and how to avoid it, and good practice for citing and referencing. Thereafter, the course concentrates on key aspects of any science degree. Lectures introduced include: distributions of populations within scientific data; ideas of probability; unit systems used within science; accuracy and precision; algebraic manipulation; graphing linear systems; and coping with non-linearity in natural systems. Included as part of this will be an introduction to the use of excel and powerpoint - two software packages which are almost essential in the life of an undergraduate student. Following these mainly numerically-related lectures, the module focuses on the scientific method, hypothesis setting and testing; these leading to the fundamental ideas concerning experimental design. These concepts then extend to discussing the importance of replication in scientific datasets. Finally, an introduction to specific statistical tests (parametric and non-parametric) is presented. Library searching and referencing Introduction to distributions within scientific data Ideas of probability Description of distributions Preamble to MS Excel On-line exercises Presentation with MS Powerpoint Unit systems used in science Accuracy & precision. How many decimal places? Introduction to algebraic manipulation Graphing of linear systems Coping with non-linearity in nature (logs etc.) The scientific method: hypothesis setting and testing Introduction to experimental design The importance of replication in scientific datasets Examples of statistical tests: parametric versus non-parametric Regression and correlation ANOVA
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• DNS-1003: Ecology & Evolution (20)

#### 20 credyd allan o:

• DXC-1000: Tiwt Acad.&Sgiliau Allweddol (10) (Semester 1)
Mae fframwaith y modiwl hwn yn debyg i ddau fodiwl cyffelyb mewn dwy ysgol arall sy'n rhan o'r Coleg Gwyddorau Naturiol (h.y. Ysgol Gwyddorau’r Eigion a'r Ysgol Gwyddorau Biolegol) ac mae’r dulliau asesu’n debyg. Yn ystod yr wythnos groeso (h.y. wythnos 0 y flwyddyn gyntaf), bydd y myfyrwyr a’u tiwtor yn cwrdd, ac yn trefnu 5 sesiwn diwtorial wedi eu dosbarthu trwy gydol semester 1. Yn ogystal â hynny ceir cyfres o sgyrsiau ymchwil a roddir gan staff academaidd yn semester 1 a semester 2. Yn ystod y tiwtorial cyntaf, bydd y tiwtoriaid yn trafod natur y cwrs a’r deilliannau dysgu sydd angen i’r myfyrwyr eu cyflawni. Bydd y tiwtor yn arwain trafodaeth ar bwnc i’w astudio a bydd y myfyrwyr yn cael rhestr ddarllen awgrymedig a disgrifiad o’r dasg fydd angen ei gwneud (h.y. traethawd neu gyflwyniad). Yn y tiwtorialau dilynol, bydd myfyrwyr yn cael adborth ffurfiannol ar y gwaith a gyflwynwyd, a bydd y tiwtor yn cyflwyno'r pwnc a'r dasg nesaf. Y tiwtoriaid penodol fydd yn dewis y pynciau i'w trafod am eu bod yn berthnasol ac yn ddefnyddiol ar gyfer ffrwd arbennig y radd y mae pob myfyriwr yn astudio ar ei chyfer. Bydd cynnwys y cwrs felly'n amrywio ar gyfer pob unigolyn. Caiff y themâu cyffredinol canlynol eu cynnwys er mwyn sicrhau cysondeb yn yr ysgol: Pwysigrwydd bod yn ffeithiol gywir wrth roi gwybodaeth i’r cyhoedd a phobl eraill. Swyddogaeth sail dystiolaethol gadarn wrth benderfynu ar bolisïau. Pwysigrwydd meddwl mewn modd rhyngddisgyblaethol. Gall y dull o ymdrin â’r themâu hyn hefyd amrywio o’r naill diwtor i’r llall, ond y fframwaith canlynol a ddefnyddir: Traethawd 1 (1500 gair) – caiff ei farcio a’i ddefnyddio ar gyfer adborth ffurfiannol. Llyfryddiaeth - caiff ei farcio fel rhan o asesiad ffurfiol. Cyflwyniad 1 (5-10 munud) – caiff ei farcio a’i ddefnyddio ar gyfer adborth ffurfiannol. Traethawd 2 (1500 gair) - caiff ei farcio fel rhan o’r asesiad ffurfiannol.
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DXX-1000: Academic Tutorials&Key Skills (10) (Semester 1)
The module is structurally similar to equivalent modules in the two other schools that form the College of Natural Sciences (i.e. School of Ocean Sciences and School of Biological Sciences) and assessment methods are similar. During the welcome week (i.e. week 0 of the first year), students and their allocated tutor will meet and timetable 5 tutorial sessions to be spread throughout semester 1. In addition there will be a series of research talks given by academic staff in semester 1 and semester 2. During the first of these tutorials, tutors will discuss with their students the nature of the course, and the learning outcomes that are to be achieved. The tutor will lead a discussion on a topic for study, and the students will receive a list of suggested reading and a description of the task to be completed (i.e. essay or presentation). In subsequent tutorials, students will receive formative feedback on presented work, and the tutor will introduce the following topic and task. Topics covered will be chosen by the individual tutor to be relevant and informative to the particular degree stream each student is following, thus the actual course content will vary between individuals. However, in order to ensure consistency across the school, the following overarching themes will be covered, The importance of factual accuracy when conveying information to the public and others The role of a sound evidence base in policy making The importance of interdisciplinary thinking The manner in which these themes are covered may also vary from tutor to tutor, but the following structure will be used: Essay 1 (1500 words) - Graded and used for formative feedback. Bibliography - Marked as part of formal assessment Presentation 1 (5 - 10 minutes) - Marked as part of formal assessment Essay 2 (1500 words) - Marked as part of formal assessment.
• DXX-1007: Academic Tutorials&Key Skills (20) (Semester 1 + 2)
The module is structurally similar to equivalent modules in the two other schools that form the College of Natural Sciences (i.e. School of Ocean Sciences and School of Biological Sciences) and assessment methods are similar. During the welcome week (i.e. week 0 of the first year), students and their allocated tutor will meet and timetable 5 tutorial sessions to be spread throughout semester 1. In semester 2 there will be a further 5 tutorial sessions. In addition there will be a series of research talks given by academic staff in semester 1 and semester 2. During the first of these tutorials, tutors will discuss with their students the nature of the course, and the learning outcomes that are to be achieved. The tutor will lead a discussion on a topic for study, and the students will receive a list of suggested reading and a description of the task to be completed (i.e. essay or presentation). In subsequent tutorials, students will receive formative feedback on presented work, and the tutor will introduce the following topic and task. Topics covered will be chosen by the individual tutor to be relevant and informative to the particular degree stream each student is following, thus the actual course content will vary between individuals. However, in order to ensure consistency across the school, the following overarching themes will be covered, The importance of factual accuracy when conveying information to the public and others The role of a sound evidence base in policy making The importance of interdisciplinary thinking The manner in which these themes are covered may also vary from tutor to tutor, but the following structure will be used: Essay 1 (1500 words) - Graded and used for formative feedback. Bibliography - Marked as part of formal assessment Presentation 1 (5 - 10 minutes) - Marked as part of formal assessment Essay 2 (1500 words) - Marked as part of formal assessment. Abstract (300 words) - Marked as part of formal assessment Presentation 2 (5-10 minutes) - Marked as part of formal assessment Essay 3 (1500 words) - Marked as part of formal assessment
• DXC-1303: Methodoleg maes (10) (Semester 2)
Mae'r cwrs yn cyflwyno egwyddorion technegau sy'n berthnasol i astudiaethau maes ar gyfer daearyddiaeth, astudiaethau'r amgylchedd a defnydd tir. Mae'n cynnwys technegau addas ar gyfer amrediad eang o sefyllfaoedd gan gynnwys agweddau ecolegol, ffisegol a daearyddol. Erbyn diwedd y cwrs bydd y rhai sy'n ei ddilyn wedi cael profiad o ddefnyddio nifer o dechnegau ac o ddehongli'r canlyniadau. Bydd y cwrs yn cael ei redeg dros benwythnos hir. Bydd y cwrs yn cynnwys astudiaethau mewn nifer o feysydd gwahanol, a allai gynnwys y canlynol: a) Dadansoddi newidiadau yng ngorlifdir afon gan ddefnyddio ffynonellau hanesyddol a mesuriadau cyfoes. b) Asesu dylanwad ac addasrwydd melinau gwynt ar gyfer ardal benodol gan ystyried oblygiadau amgylcheddol ac ystyriaethau cynllunio. c) Astudio'r prosesau sy'n gwahardd pobl o leoedd penodol gan ganolbwyntio ar brosesau ffurfiol ac anffurfiol mewn trefi. d) Dehongli'r ffactorau sy'n dylanwadau ar ddefnydd tir mewn ardal benodol gan ystyried effeithiau daearyddol a dynol. e) Astudio'r modd y mae cymunedau'n datblygu mewn ardaloedd gwledig a threfol a'r ffactorau hanesyddol a phresennol sy'n dylanwadu arnynt. f) Dehongli effeithiau rhewlifau ar dirwedd ac ardal benodol gan ystyried damcaniaethau gwahanol
• Choose either DXC/X1000 + DXC/X1303 OR DXC/DXX1007.

### Modiwlau Gorfodol

#### Semester 1

• DXX-2000: GIS & Research Methods (20)
Geographical Information Systems: data types, raster and vector data; primary sources, data capture; secondary data sources, data providers; data export formats and data translation; data projections, OSGB and WGS84 lat long; Global Positioning System (GPS), position fixing; organisation of spatial data; Structured Query Language (SQL); geoprocessing, overlay and boolean data, spatial sampling, modelling and analytical approaches; potential uses of GIS utilising a range of examples. Statistics: principles of hypothesis generation, sampling, study design, spatial methods, 1 and 2 way ANOVA for completely randomised designs; 1 factor randomised block ANOVA; correlation coefficient; simple and multiple linear regression; social research methods. Computer-based data manipulation, analysis and presentation. Students will be encouraged to develop effective learning skills including: production of a honours project proposal; communication skills; and time management.
• DXX-2003: Principles of Conservation (20)
• The need for nature conservation and the nature of conservation • Patterns of global biodiversity • Extinction crisis and habitat loss • Small population biology • Harvesting theory • Invasive species control •Strategies for Ex situ conservation • Species reintroductions • The need for habitat conservation • Island biogeography • Selecting sites for protection • Managing protected areas • Integrating social and economic factors in conservation • Responding to climate change and pollution

#### Semester 2

• DXX-2000: GIS & Research Methods
Geographical Information Systems: data types, raster and vector data; primary sources, data capture; secondary data sources, data providers; data export formats and data translation; data projections, OSGB and WGS84 lat long; Global Positioning System (GPS), position fixing; organisation of spatial data; Structured Query Language (SQL); geoprocessing, overlay and boolean data, spatial sampling, modelling and analytical approaches; potential uses of GIS utilising a range of examples. Statistics: principles of hypothesis generation, sampling, study design, spatial methods, 1 and 2 way ANOVA for completely randomised designs; 1 factor randomised block ANOVA; correlation coefficient; simple and multiple linear regression; social research methods. Computer-based data manipulation, analysis and presentation. Students will be encouraged to develop effective learning skills including: production of a honours project proposal; communication skills; and time management.
• DXX-2012: Field Course: ACE (20)
A one week course combining field practical sessions based in Bangor and field visits away from Bangor. The practical element illustrates the conflict between land use for economic production and conservation & biodiversity outcomes. Specifically the practical sessions will investigate the relationship between diffuse environmental pollution and biodiversity levels. The field visits provide further examples of conflict and also illustrate how conflict resolution has been tackled and how we can evaluate the relative success of different approaches.

### Modiwlau Opsiynol

#### 60 credyd allan o:

• DXX-2001: Sustainable Development (20) (Semester 1 + 2)
This module will look at sustainable development which is based on effective ways of protecting the environment, prudent use of natural resources, maintenance of stable and flourishing communities where everyone’s needs are met. Thus changing and contested discourses of power, community, distinctiveness of place and social progress will also be considered along side effective environmental planning and management methods. These entail specific examples of tools applied for working towards, managing and monitoring sustainability will be presented e.g. LCA, Eco Systems services and specific case studies where these have and are being applied will be utilised from real contrasting geographical areas. The module will draw on existing tourism-related initiatives at local, regional and national level and provide critical commentary on their relative effectiveness and lessons learnt relating to sustainability. In order to examine strategic economic activity within the scope of sustainability theoretical discussion of several contexts will be examined in detail e.g. Local Food Initiatives, Sustainable Tourism, Sustainable Agriculture. This will include the basic global principles of sustainable tourism and how these have been variously applied in different contexts through charters and protocols. The development of the concept of sustainability will be examined in a general introduction to the changing population, resource technological and development debate. The economic theories relating to the wise management of natural resource will be explored along with the notion of governance for sustainable development involving international actors e.g. TNC’s and Campaigning groups. Students will be afforded the opportunity to work alongside staff within small project teams (max size 5) on specific case study scenarios involving techniques currently used by local sustainability practitioners and individually in quantitative assessment. Some of these projects will involve community organisations local to North Wales. This will include consideration of the recently extended section of the Clwydian Range and Dee Valley Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty as a potential model approach to a sustainably managed protected area which emphasises high environmental quality and adding value and appreciation through integrated land use and activity management.
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• BNS-2002: Evolution & Genetics (20) (Semester 1)
Evolution by natural selection, heredity, genetic variation, the Hardy Weinberg model, gene flow, random genetic drift and selective processes, population differentiation, taxonomy and biodiversity, micro- and macro-evolutionary processes. Specific attention is paid to the design of field and experimental studies using a range of case studies to elucidate the drivers of evolutionary change.
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BNC-2002: Esblygiad a Geneteg (20) (Semester 1)
• DXX-2006: Climate Change (20) (Semester 1)
1. Major concepts; climate and environmental change and `global warming¿. 2. Temporal and spatial patterns of historical climate change. Major glacial/interglacial cycles, Quaternary climate change (Last Glacial Maximum, Younger Dryas Hypsithermal, Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age). Potential contributing factors (orbital forcing, sunspot activity). Hemispheric differences in climate variation. 3. Use of environmental proxies. The course will cover the use of a range of environmental proxies for reconstructing past climate at a range of temporal and spatial scales. This will include the use of dendrochronological records, palaeo-atmospheric chemistry (ice-cores), speleotherms, varved sedimentary deposits, documentary records, primary climate observations. 4. Environmental and human impacts of climate change. Focusing on both historical and contemporary issues: megafaunal extinctions, population stress in the LIA, drought in sub-Saharan Africa. 5. The contemporary climate change debate. Depiction in the popular media, causes, magnitude. Evidence presented in the peer-reviewed, scientific literature. 6. Future predictions of climate change. IPCC, GCMs. 7. Adaption to climate change. Focus on both attempts to address potential causes (CO2 and `greenhouse gas¿ releases, Kyoto Protocol, Copenhagen Summit, carbon capture, renewable energy, energy efficiency, carbon credits, offsetting) and impacts (impacts of climatic change upon weather and the environment, changing frequency and magnitude of extreme events). 8. Socio-economic impacts of climate change.
• DXX-2009: Conservation Practice (20) (Semester 2)
Understanding conservation responses Community-conservation Efficacy of agri-environment schemes The role of international NGOs International agreements (CBD, Ramsar, EU Habitats and birds directive), To provide training in some of the skills used by professional conservationists Conservation monitoring (some theory eg type I and type I errors, the concept of power) and introduction to some UK based and international schemes. Study design and experimental design for conservation biology and ecology (stratification, precision and bias); Estimating population size (quadrats, mark and recapture, distance sampling, territory mapping); Measuring biodiversity across scales (diversity indices); Management planning and measurable indicators of conservation state including, including common standards monitoring and compliance monitoring.
• OSX-2009: Marine Ecology (20) (Semester 1)
Topics covered will include: rocky shore ecology, keystone species, physical and biological factors, zonation, disturbance, succession, macro-algal production. Soft sediment ecology, saltmarsh, seagrasses, mangal, tropical and temperate soft sediment shores. Sub-tidal hard substrate ecology, temperate reefs, physical and biological factors, community structure, exposure. Coral reef ecology, types and formation, algal symbiosis, biodiversity and productivity, community structure, development and change, processes leading to stable communities.
• DXX-2011: Catchment Processes (20) (Semester 2)
This module will provide a management-oriented understanding of the factors influencing the quality and quantity of soil and water resources. The hydrological cycle and water balance in catchments; rainfall/runoff relationships; catchment characteristics; catchment structure ¿ hillslope, channel & floodplain domains; sedimentation; the role of vegetation and land-use changes in catchment stability, hydrological processes and soil erosion; water quality; temperate and tropical catchment results and case studies; degrading processes in catchments; legislation and the Water Framework Directive.
• BSX-2018: Behavioural Ecology (20) (Semester 2)
The module will cover key aspects of animal behaviour and will include: Theory on the development of animal behaviour, learning and cognition, social behaviour, economic decision making, sexual selection, mating systems, sexual conflict and parental care. A considerable emphasis will also be placed on practical observation of animal behaviour and how this can be used to frame and test hypotheses to enhance our understanding of the field.
• DXX-2021: Plant Diversity & Conservation (20) (Semester 2)
• BSX-2022: Vertebrate Biology (20) (Semester 1)
This module traces the origins of vertebrates and follows the subsequent major advances in the evolution of aquatic, terrestrial and aerial groups. Themes given particular emphasis include: evolution, diversity, feeding, respiration (aquatic and aerial), locomotion (aquatic, terrestrial and flight) and reproduction. This module should be of general interest to all animal biologists but with an emphasis on terrestrial groups. The module will include 5 practical classes, comprising 3 on animal diversity (herpetology, birds and mammals, based on the museum collection), 1 chicken dissection (looking at locomotor, reproductive and digestive adaptations) and 1 on fish diversity in form and function.
• Preferred pathway includes DXX-2009 BSX-2022 is a prerequisite for BSX-3157. Students choosing OSX-2009 will have to catch up on reading from BNS-1002. BSX-2018 is a prerequisite for BNS-3004.

### Modiwlau Gorfodol

#### Semester 1

• DXX-3701: Honours project (30)
The module allows students to undertake an extensive and original independent investigation of a topic of relevance to their degree programme. It may involve practical experimentation in the laboratory and/or field or a non-experimental study. It is conducted under the supervision of a member of academic staff. The module also provides opportunities for students to develop their own ideas, to show initiative, to work on their own and to follow an agreed plan, and for these attributes to be assessed. The project must be written up in the form of a research honours project, to a specified format. In addition, it may also be assessed by a poster presentation, oral presentation, or other method, that may vary according to the degree programme, but that will be specified at the start of the module.
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DXC-3701: Project Anrhydedd (30)
Mae'r modiwl hwn yn caniatáu i fyfyrwyr gynnal ymchwiliad annibynnol eang a gwreiddiol o bwnc sy'n berthnasol i'w rhaglen gradd. Mae'n bosib y bydd yn cynnwys arbrofi ymarferol mewn labordy a / neu drwy waith maes, neu astudiaeth nad yw'n ymwneud ag arbrofi. Fe'i cynhelir o dan oruchwyliaeth aelod o'r staff academaidd. Mae'r modiwl hefyd yn rhoi cyfle i fyfyrwyr ddatblygu eu syniadau eu hunain, dangos eu gallu i fentro, gweithio'n annibynnol ac i ddilyn cynllun y cytunwyd arno, ac i'r priodoleddau hyn gael eu hasesu. Mae'n rhaid i waith ysgrifenedig y project fod ar ffurf adroddiad ymchwil, mewn fformat penodol. Bydd hefyd yn cael ei asesu ar sail cyflwyniad llafar mewn seminar; bydd y manylion ar gael ar ddechrau'r modiwl.

#### Semester 2

• DXX-3701: Honours project
The module allows students to undertake an extensive and original independent investigation of a topic of relevance to their degree programme. It may involve practical experimentation in the laboratory and/or field or a non-experimental study. It is conducted under the supervision of a member of academic staff. The module also provides opportunities for students to develop their own ideas, to show initiative, to work on their own and to follow an agreed plan, and for these attributes to be assessed. The project must be written up in the form of a research honours project, to a specified format. In addition, it may also be assessed by a poster presentation, oral presentation, or other method, that may vary according to the degree programme, but that will be specified at the start of the module.
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DXC-3701: Project Anrhydedd
Mae'r modiwl hwn yn caniatáu i fyfyrwyr gynnal ymchwiliad annibynnol eang a gwreiddiol o bwnc sy'n berthnasol i'w rhaglen gradd. Mae'n bosib y bydd yn cynnwys arbrofi ymarferol mewn labordy a / neu drwy waith maes, neu astudiaeth nad yw'n ymwneud ag arbrofi. Fe'i cynhelir o dan oruchwyliaeth aelod o'r staff academaidd. Mae'r modiwl hefyd yn rhoi cyfle i fyfyrwyr ddatblygu eu syniadau eu hunain, dangos eu gallu i fentro, gweithio'n annibynnol ac i ddilyn cynllun y cytunwyd arno, ac i'r priodoleddau hyn gael eu hasesu. Mae'n rhaid i waith ysgrifenedig y project fod ar ffurf adroddiad ymchwil, mewn fformat penodol. Bydd hefyd yn cael ei asesu ar sail cyflwyniad llafar mewn seminar; bydd y manylion ar gael ar ddechrau'r modiwl.
• DXX-3801: Human Aspects of Conservation (20)

### Modiwlau Opsiynol

#### 70 credyd allan o:

• BNS-3000: Wildlife Ecol & Conservation (20) (Semester 1)
This module will allow students to explore key concepts and theories of wildlife ecology as they relate to conservation. Amongst other topics, the module addresses drivers of animal distribution, foraging theory, niche theory, vulnerability to extinction, the role of apex predators, trophic interactions and spatial ecology. The lectures are accompanied by field trips. The data collected during these trips will be statistically analysed in dedicated computer sessions.
• OSX-3001: Marine Conservation & Exploit. (20) (Semester 2)
The course will address methods of natural resource assessment, and techniques and tools for protection and management of living marine resource exploitation. Marine biological diversity will be defined, and impacts and threats assessed, identifying the need to protect species, ecological processes and critical habitats. The limits of environmental degradation and rehabilitation will be explored. Conservation methods developed for terrestrial diversity do not extend into the marine environment, and differences in approach will be considered. The effectiveness of tools such as zoning, legislation, environmental impact assessment, and Marine Protected Areas will be assessed. Sustainable development and integrated coastal zone management will be introduced, and case studies from around the world will be used to illustrate successes and failures of biological conservation. The course will deal with the over-exploitation of marine biological resources with a global overview and case studies of fisheries at the single species and ecosystem levels. The historical development of fisheries exploitation will be linked to technological advances made over the last 80 000 years. Approaches to management of fisheries will be evaluated. Aquaculture will be introduced as an alternative means of seafood production, criteria for selection of species will be considered, including biological characteristics, growth, reproduction, larval culture, yields and economics. Principles and culture practices for the major farmed groups will be reviewed and a range of species and characteristics of production systems from extensive to highly intensive will be compared, together with alternative approaches to increasing production such as stock enhancement. Environmental impacts, constraints on development and sustainability of aquaculture will be discussed
• BNS-3003: Freshwater Ecosystems 2 (20) (Semester 1)
Introduction to freshwater ecosystems. Habitat type: Plants & algae, physical & chemical characteristics, geomorphology/hydrology & structure of freshwater ecosystems. Classification of lakes, rivers & wetlands. Freshwater communities & relationships Human impacts on freshwaters & approaches to conservation & restoration. Fisheries ecology, life assessment and management & fisheries economics Ecosystem services and their management
• BNS-3004: Advances in Behaviour (20) (Semester 1)
Observing animal behaviour. Introduction to welfare of animals in captivity.   Application of animal behavior to conservation. The evolution of animal behaviour and its role in macroevolution. Links between animal behavior and other disciplines such as psychology and computer science.
• BSX-3152: Life in Wetlands (20) (Semester 2)
Wetland determination and delineation will be covered in detail, along with global wetland classifications. The wildlife of wetlands, with particular emphasis on animal species, will be a key part in many of the lectures and sessions. This area will also include specific zoological adaptations to cope with the stresses created by wetland conditions. Crucial wetland-biogeochemical cycles will be explained and the importance of wetlands, in terms of the ecosystem services they provide will be covered in-depth.
• BSX-3157: Ornithology (20) (Semester 1)
• DXX-3212: Forest Ecosystems (10) (Semester 2)
The module is based on a series of lectures and seminars. The lectures provide a conceptual background and overview. The seminars are conducted by groups of students and provide an opportunity for in-depth study and discussion. Seminars are based on research papers which are critically reviewed and presented by a group of students in the class. The lecturer provides a platform for understanding the topic area and provokes discussion about the background of the paper, assumptions, weaknesses, and politics eg. Why did the author write that? Lecture Topics 1. Ecosystem Theory 2. Ecosystem Processes 3. Warming 4. Fire 5. Ozone 6. CO2 7. Soil Acidification 8. Nitrogen Deposition 9. Genetic Diversity 10. Tropical Forests
• DXX-3301: Forest Ecology (20) (Semester 1)
Lectures: Pattern and process in forests; the ecology of natural and human disturbance. Vegetation succession (mechanisms, models, impact on forest structure and composition, applications). The forest regeneration cycle (especially seed production and dispersal, gap phase, thinning, the regeneration niche). Ecological variation amongst plant species, including: its architectural and ecophysiological basis; response to global and local environmental change; applications to forest management. Forest mammals: geographical and habitat distribution; role in food webs. The global issue of invasive species, focussing on impacts in forest habitats. Disturbance effects on forest mammals; ecologically-based approaches to the management of invasive species. Forests and trees as habitat, their landscape ecology, habitat and species conservation and restoration. Practicals: Pattern and process in forests, vegetation succession, tree populations and regeneration, application to forest restoration and management; primary succession and its application to the ecological restoration of derelict industrial sites, environmental factors limiting the establishment of vegetation, comparative ecology of tree species and the impact of disturbance. Seminars: A series of ca. 20 key current questions in forest wildlife conservation will be introduced. Each pair of students will pick one question and research, present and discuss their answer in the following seminar.
• DXX-3304: Tropical conserva field course (20) (Semester 1)
The hydrological cycle and water balance in catchments; rainfall/runoff relationships; catchment characteristics; weathering and sedimentation; the role of vegetation and land-use changes in catchment stability and hydrological processes; water quality and acid rain; temperate and tropical watershed results and case studies; principles of good watershed management.
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DXX-3305: Field Course: Tenerife (20) (Semester 1)
A one-week field course on the environmentally diverse island of Tenerife. You will be taken to a variety of sites which demonstrate a range of rock, soil and vegetation types, and a range of conservation and sustainability issues. Some of these will involve meeting and discussion with local experts. You will spend time towards the end of the week working as pairs or small teams on a project designed by you and evolved in discussion with the teaching staff.
• DXX-3305: Field Course: Tenerife (20) (Semester 1)
A one-week field course on the environmentally diverse island of Tenerife. You will be taken to a variety of sites which demonstrate a range of rock, soil and vegetation types, and a range of conservation and sustainability issues. Some of these will involve meeting and discussion with local experts. You will spend time towards the end of the week working as pairs or small teams on a project designed by you and evolved in discussion with the teaching staff.
• DXX-3510: Advances in Conservation (20) (Semester 2)
• DXX-3511: Advances in Conservation (10) (Semester 2)
• DXX-3615: Environmental Policy (10) (Semester 1)
Policy and the environment Basic concepts of government, sovereignty, politics, democracy. General features of political systems and governments in the UK and internationally. The role of diverse actors in the policy process: including politicians and parliaments, governments, bureaucracies and agencies, NGOs, media, interest groups and supranational bodies. Theories of politics and policy-making, including international relations.
• DXX-3702: Management plan (30) (Semester 1)
The module is based on an assessment of an existing site to answer a specific question related to the area's land use. Students will be provided with background information and will have opportunities to visit the location and to hold discussions with site owners/managers. Using this information plus other relevant physical, biological, technical and economic data, a management plan / strategy document will be prepared. Students will be provided with a detailed brief that defines the scope of the plan and the expectations. They will be provided with access to tutorial support to address technical issues as they arise.
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DXC-3702: Cynllun Rheoli (30) (Semester 1)
Mae'r modiwl yn seiliedig ar asesu safle sydd eisoes yn bodoli i ateb cwestiwn penodol sy'n berthnasol i ddefnyddio tir yr ardal. Bydd myfyrwyr yn cael gwybodaeth cefndir ac yn cael cyfle i ymweld â'r safle a chynnal trafodaethau gyda pherchnogion/rheolwyr y safle. Bydd cynllun rheoli/dogfen strategaeth yn cael ei ddarparu drwy ddefnyddio'r wybodaeth hon yn ogystal â data ffisegol, biolegol, technegol, economaidd a GIS perthnasol arall. Bydd myfyrwyr yn cael gwybodaeth fanwl i ddiffinio cwmpas y cynllun a¿r disgwyliadau. Byddant yn cael mynediad at gefnogaeth diwtorial (gan gynnwys GIS) i ymdrin â materion technegol fel bo'r angen.
• DXX-3707: Catchment Modelling & Analysis (10) (Semester 2)
Major themes covered 1. Importance of models in scientific inquiry 2. A brief history of different approaches to catchment modelling 3. Introduction to MATLAB programming language 4. Obtaining and processing the input data for models 5. Modelling of hydrological processes 6. Introduction to biogeochemical cycles in landscapes 7. Modelling of nutrient cycling and transport in catchments 8. Automated calibration of model parameters 9. Lumped vs. distributed catchment models 10. Polyscape: A landscape analysis tool for modelling the effects of multi-stakeholder interaction in catchment management decisions
• DXX-3800: Coping with a Changing Planet (20) (Semester 1)
• DXX-2003 is a pre-requisite for BNS-3000. DXX-2006 is a pre-requisite for DXX-3800. BSX-2018 is a pre-requisite for BNS-3004. BSX-2022 is a pre-requisite for BSX-3157. DXX-2011 is a pre-requisite for DXX-3707. Preferred Pathway includes BNS-3000.