Marine Ecosystems & Processes
Run by School of Ocean Sciences
20 Credits or 10 ECTS Credits
Organiser: Dr Martin Skov
Overall aims and purpose
The course aims to provide students with an integrated understanding of the key abiotic and biotic drivers that shape marine communities and habitats. It aspires to give students a framework for understanding the processes that cause marine systems to persist or to change. Drawing on course content and wider degree contents, the intent is that students will pull together their wider knowledge of systems and processes into a framework centred on the concept of ‘ecosystem functioning’.
The module is structured as three types of lectures, as well as a practical component. Lectures are on: (i) The main Drivers of Marine Ecosystem Function; these lectures aim to generate in students an understanding of the factors that underpin ecosystem functioning, as well as the factors that can cause ecosystems to change; (ii) Selected Marine Ecosystems (estuarine, mangrove, coastal shelf seas, pelagic and benthic subtidal); these lectures aim to illustrate ecosystem functioning, and aspects that affect ecosystem function, in an array of marine ecosystems; and (iii) Lectures on important current Global Impacts on the functioning of marine ecosystems: climate change, ocean acidification, invasive species, coastal development and fisheries disturbance. A practical component explores functional diversity in a coral reef setting, through analysis of published data. In three practicals the dataset is processed, analysed and presented (poster presentation).
The module takes as an over-arching theme the concepts of ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services. It commences with 5 introductory lectures that illustrate the factors that underpin ecosystem functioning, as well as factors that can cause ecosystems to change. The key corner-stones that underpin ecosystem processes are detailed. A particular focus is made on exploring the role of biodiversity in maintaining ecosystem functions and services. Drivers of ecosystem change and resistance to change are considered in the contexts of ecosystem resilience, system vulnerability and ecosystem regime-shifts. The role of biodiversity in maintaining resilience in marine systems is examined. Factors that determine secondary production of systems are considered, with particular focus on fisheries, marie vertebrates, zooplankton and marine benthos.
The practical shapes of ecosystem functioning, services, resilience and vulnerability are then illustrated by a series of lectures that consider the biology, ecology and conservational status of key ecosystems in detail. Systems for which particular focus is made are: estuaries, mangroves, coral reefs, coastal shelf seas, seabirds, pelagic systems and the open ocean.
The module also has emphasis on reviewing the influences of some of the most important current drivers of change in marine ecosystems (‘Global Impacts’). Six dedicated lectures examine the effects of invasive species, climate change, benthic exploration and fisheries disturbance on the functioning of marine ecosystems.
The course includes a marked course-work component. The practical component focuses on examining how guilds of coral reef fishes interact with coral reef structure. This component has particular emphasis on how functional diversity of coral reefs affect the traits of reef fishes. In the first practical session, students are asked to process an existing dataset, using R Statistics. I the second session, students progress to analyse the data and present it graphically. Students then, individually, produce a poster for assessment, from where two continuous-assessment marks arise; one poster mark arises from presenting the poster in a poster conference; the other mark is allocated to the quality of the poster itself (content, structure, design, appearance).
Knowledge extending beyond the directly taught programme with evidence of enquiry beyond that contained in lectures, and beyond that derived from internet resources; excellent ability to integrate lines of evidence from a range of sources to support findings and hypotheses, excellent understanding of subject specific theories, concepts and principles, good ability to consider issues from a range of multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary perspectives. Consistent and frequent referencing to relevant literature.
Knowledge based on the directly taught programme, basic ability to integrate lines of evidence from a range of sources to support findings and hypotheses, basic understanding of subject specific theories, concepts and principles, basic ability to consider issues from a range of multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary perspectives.
Knowledge based on the directly taught programme with some evidence of enquiry beyond that perhaps derived from internet resources, good ability to integrate lines of evidence from a range of sources to support findings and hypotheses, good understanding of subject specific theories, concepts and principles, good ability to consider issues from a range of multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary perspectives.
Students will demonstrate a good knowledge of the key environmental and biological drivers that affect marine processes and ecosystem functioninng, and the relevant temporal and spatial scale at which these operate
Students will demonstrate a good knowledge of the specific processes that relate to each of key marine systems addressed in the course
Students will be able to integrate systems ecology with systems processes
Students will have the ability to process, analyse and present a large dataset.
Students will demonstrate an in-depth understanding of how biodiversity contributes to the resilience and regime shifts of marine systems, and appreciate the importance of functional diversity on ecosystem functioning.
Students will have the ability to make and present a conference poster that conveys, simply and clearly, the results of a piece of research
|INDIVIDUAL PRESENTATION||Presentation of Scientific Poster||
Students are given 4 minutes to present their poster; marking criteria are all about presentation skills (timekeeping, clarity and structure of talk, etc). A rubric is supplied.
|COURSEWORK||Quality of Scientific Poster||
Electronic copy of poster made based on the data-based study run in practicals. Marks are given for poster content, structure, presentation, clarity of statistical analyses, etc. A marking rubric is supplied.
3 hour exam. Students answer two essay-style questions, one per each of two sections of the paper (A, B). Each section has a series of optional questions to select from.
Teaching and Learning Strategy
Directed reading based on the course content and reading lists given. The student may in addition use web-based references, videos and images. Self study in the use of R statistical analysis and use of R software.
|Practical classes and workshops||
Four practical sessions lasting a total of 12 contact hours. This is split into three practicals: (1) a 6 hour online or computing-room based practical in which students explore data on the statistical software R. (2) A 2 hour computing-room based practical in which students analyse their data. (3) A 1 hour practical workshop in which student learn about poster making. (4) A 3 hour practical in which students present their posters. Five 1 hour online or classroom based tutorials/Q&A sessions give students assistance in solving problems with R, poster making and the course overall.
Formal lectures (18x1hr).
- Literacy - Proficiency in reading and writing through a variety of media
- Numeracy - Proficiency in using numbers at appropriate levels of accuracy
- Computer Literacy - Proficiency in using a varied range of computer software
- Self-Management - Able to work unsupervised in an efficient, punctual and structured manner. To examine the outcomes of tasks and events, and judge levels of quality and importance
- Exploring - Able to investigate, research and consider alternatives
- Information retrieval - Able to access different and multiple sources of information
- Inter-personal - Able to question, actively listen, examine given answers and interact sensitevely with others
- Critical analysis & Problem Solving - Able to deconstruct and analyse problems or complex situations. To find solutions to problems through analyses and exploration of all possibilities using appropriate methods, rescources and creativity.
- Presentation - Able to clearly present information and explanations to an audience. Through the written or oral mode of communication accurately and concisely.
- Mentoring - Able to support, help, guide, inspire and/or coach others
- Argument - Able to put forward, debate and justify an opinion or a course of action, with an individual or in a wider group setting
- Self-awareness & Reflectivity - Having an awareness of your own strengths, weaknesses, aims and objectives. Able to regularly review, evaluate and reflect upon the performance of yourself and others
- Leadership - Able to lead and manage, develop action plans and objectives, offer guidance and direction to others, and cope with the related pressures such authority can result in
Subject specific skills
Use of R statistical software. Ability to make and present a scientific poster for marine sciences.
Courses including this module
Compulsory in courses:
- C160: BSC Marine Biology year 3 (BSC/MB)
- C16F: BSc Marine Biology year 3 (BSC/MBF)
- C165: BSc Marine Biology (with International Experience) year 4 (BSC/MBIE)
- 2W79: MMBiol Marine Biology (with International Experience) year 4 (MMBIOL/MBI)
- C167: MSci Marine Biology year 3 (MSCI/MB)
Optional in courses:
- C163: BSC Applied Marine Biology year 4 (BSC/AMB4)
- C166: BSc Applied Marine Biology (with International Experience) year 4 (BSC/AMB4IE)
- CC13: BSC Marine Biology/Zoology year 3 (BSC/BMZ)
- 8B76: BSc Marine Biology and Zoology (with International Exp) year 4 (BSC/BMZIE)
- CF17: BSC Marine Biology/Oceanography year 3 (BSC/MBO)
- F710: BSC Marine Environmental Studies year 3 (BSC/MES)
- F713: BSc Marine Environmental Stud with International Experience year 4 (BSC/MESIE)
- C351: BSC Marine Vertebrate Zoology year 3 (BSC/MVZ)
- 2F11: BSc Marine Vertebrate Zoology (with International Experience year 4 (BSC/MVZIE)
- F700: BSC Ocean Science year 3 (BSC/OS)
- F712: MSci Marine Biology and Oceanography year 3 (MSCI/MBO)
- C169: MSci Marine Biology and Zoology year 3 (MSCI/MBZ)
- C168: MSci Marine Vertebrate Zoology year 3 (MSCI/MVZ)