Under the umbrella term veillance, Bangor University identified three clear processes of mutual watching, and an understanding of its power dynamics. They are: watching from positions of power (surveillance), watching from positions of powerlessness, including peer-to-peer watching and watching the watchers to hold them accountable (sousveillance), and blocking being watched (counterveillance).
Bangor University’s research into ‘veillance’ has highlighted the harms to citizens arising from digital profiling by state and commercial entities including privacy violations and exposure to targeted online disinformation. This has enabled civil society to develop a better understanding of how to hold secretive state and commercial surveillant entities publicly accountable. The research has directly informed a range of national and international stakeholders and policymakers, including the UK parliament; the EU; the Indian and Jamaican Supreme Courts; the South African High Court; British and Irish professional journalist practices; nongovernmental organisations; and the wider public via global media coverage.