Professor Hilary Kennedy
BSc (Essex) MSc (Strath) PhD (Leeds)

Photograph of Prof Hilary Kennedy


I am a professor in Chemical Oceanography. I completed a B.Sc in biological chemistry at the University of Essex, a MSc in Forensic Science at Strathclyde University and a PhD at Leeds University. My PhD thesis was entitled “Diagenesis in deep sea sediments with special reference to iodine”. After a postdoctoral position at the Bullard Laboratoies, University of Cambridge, I took up my current position here at Bangor.

Research Interests

My research interests are focussed on the use of stable isotopes (carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur) in tracing biogeochemical process and in validating the use of tracers for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. In the seagrass meadows of Asia and Europe stable isotopes are being applied to trace both the source of organic matter to the sediments and to the local food web; to validate their use as indicators of changes in nutrient loading to the coastal environment and to determine the impact of anoxic conditions on the health of seagrass meadows. I am also interested in the importance of seagrass meadows as coastal carbon sinks. In Antarctica, the spatiotemporal variations in stable isotope composition (13C and 15N) of sea ice algae and open water plankton are being used to examine how the extreme environment of Antarctica can affect the biogeochemical pathways for carbon and nitrogen. In more local studies I have been involved in calibration (experimental and field) studies of marine molluscs to determine their utility and validity in palaeo-reconstruction. This is being expanded to include the study of foraminifers, especially in polar waters. I also have a more general interest in sediment diagenesis and use both the elemental and isotopic records in sedimentary pore waters to determine benthic remineralisation and fluxes.

Research Groups

Research Themes

Research Grants Awarded

2000-2004: Monitoring And Managing of European Seagrass Beds M&Ms EU (Contract EVK3-CT-2000-00044). £198,045

2001-2002: Using large ice tanks to study the biology and chemistry of sea ice. NERC Small Research Grant. NER/B/S/2000/00659 (with D.Thomas, SOS). £36,012.

1998-2001: Holocene palaeoceanography of shelf seas: long-term (103-104 years) seasonal stratification dynamics' NERC: GR3/11467 (with J. Scourse, SOS and W.E.N.Austin, Durham). £153,937

1998-2001: Application of stable isotope techniques to biogeochemical processes in the marine environment: from paleo to present. NERC-JREI: GR3/E0068. £59,679.

1997-2000: Carbon cycling at the deep ocean boundary layer. NERC-BENBO thematic programme GST/02/1754 (with D.Thomas, SOS). £174,680.

1997-2000 Prediction of the resilience and recovery of disturbed coastal communities in the tropics (PREDICT). EU – INCO programme (Contract IC18-CT98-0292) £56,525.

1998-1999: Organic matter production within, and export from Antarctic sea ice platelet layers. NERC Small Research Grant. GR9/3309 (with D. Thomas, SOS) £16,575.

1994 -1999: The use of modelling techniques to assess the nature of carbon acquisition of marine phytoplankton. NERC:GST021071 Plankton Reactivity in the Marine Environment (PRIME) thematic programme £152,934

1997-1999: Quantification of the active N-flux caused by the diel vertical migration of zooplankton. (with G.Hays, PJLeBWilliams and K. Flynn) University of Wales £11,140

1997-1998: Biogeochemistry of Antarctic sea ice. NERC Small Research Grant. GR9/02894 (with D.Thomas, SOS) £24,703.

1988-1993: The use of variations in 15N, 13C natural abundance to study biological cycling and fluxes in the ocean. NERC Biogeochemical Fluxes in the Oceans BOFS thematic programme. GST/02/303. £71,842
1990-93: Structure and function of coastal ecosystems. EU (with P.J. leB Williams,SOS) £133,290


Peer Reviewed Journal Papers

Butler, B.M., Papadimitriou, S., Santoro, A Kennedy H 2016
Mirabilite solubility in equilibrium sea ice brines. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 182, 40-54

Butler, B.M. and Kennedy H. 2015
An investigation of mineral dynamics in frozen seawater brines by direct measurement with synchrotoron X-ray powder diffraction. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120, 5686-5697.DOI:10.1002/2015JC011032.
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Hejnowicz A.P., Kennedy H., Huxham M.R. and Rudd M.A. 2015
Harnessing the climate mitigation, conservation and poverty alleviation potential of seagrasses: prospects for developing blue carbon initiatives and payment for ecosystem service programmes. Frontiers in Marine Science - Global Change and the Future Ocean. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2015.00032

Mazarra, I., Marba, N., Lovelock C.E., Serrano O., Lavery P.S., Fourqurean J.W., Kennedy H., Mateo M.A,. Krause-Jensen D., Steven A.D.l,. and Duarte C.M. 2015
Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir. Biogeosciences 12, 4993-5003

Zhou X., Lu Z., Rickaby R.E.M., Domack E.W. Wellner J.S. Kennedy H.A. 2015
Ikaite Abundance Controlled by Porewater Phosphorus Level: Potential Links to Dust and Productivity. The Journal of Geology. DOI:10.1086/681918

González-Ortegón E., Walton M.E.M., Moghaddam B., Vilas C., Prieto A., Kennedy H.A., Cañavate J.P and Le Vay L.  (2015)
Flow regime in a restored wetland determines trophic links and species composition in the aquatic macroinvertebrate community. Science of The Total Environment 503, 241-250

Walton M.E.M., Vilas C. ,Coccia C., Green A.J., Cañavate J.P.,  Prieto A., van Bergeijk S.A., Medialdea J.M.,  Kennedy H., King, J. and Le Vay L. (2015)
The effect of water management on extensive aquaculture food webs in the reconstructed wetlands of the Doñana Natural Park, Southern Spain. Aquaculture 448: 451- 463

Papadimitriou S, Kennedy H, Kennedy P, Thomas DN (2014)
Kinetics of ikaite precipitation and dissolution in seawater-derived brines at sub-zero temperatures to 265 K. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 140, 199-211.

Rippeth, TP; Lincoln, BJ; Kennedy, HA; Palmer, MR; Sharples, J; Williams, CAJ (2014).
Impact of vertical mixing on sea surface pCO2 in temperate seasonally stratified shelf seas. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 06/2014; DOI: 10.1002/2014JC01008.

Walton M.E.M., I. Al-Maslamani, M.W. Skov, I. Al-Shaikh, I.S. Al-Ansari, H.A. Kennedy, L. Le Vay (2014)
Outwelling from arid mangrove systems is sustained by inwelling of seagrass productivity. Marine Ecology Progress Series. DOI: 10.3354/meps10827.

Zhou J, B. Delille, H Kaartokallio, G Kattner, H Kuosa, J-L Tison, R. Autio, GS Dieckmann, K-U Evers, L. Jørgensen, H Kennedy, M Kotovitch, A-M Luhtanen, CA Stedmon and DN Thomas. 2014.
Physical and bacterial controls on the distribution of inorganic nutrients and DOC in sea ice during an experimental ice growth and decay cycle. Marine Chemistry, doi: 10.1016/j.marchem.2014.09.013

Al-Maslamani, M.E.M. Walton, H.A. Kennedy, M. Al-Mohannadi, L. Le Vay (2013)
Are mangroves in arid environments isolated systems? Life-history and evidence of dietary contribution from inwelling in a mangrove-resident shrimp species. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Science 124: 56-63

Papadimitriou S., Kennedy H., Kennedy, D.P Thomas D.N. 2013
Ikaite solubility in seawater-derived brines at 1 atm and sub-zero temperatures to 265 K. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 109 (2013) 241-253

Fourqurean J.W., Duarte C.M., Kennedy H., Marba N., Holmer M., Mateo M.A., Apostolaki E.T., Kendrick G.A., Krause-Jensen D., McGlathery K.J., Serrano O. 2012
Seagrass ecosystems as a significant global carbon stock. Nature Geoscience. DOI 10.1038/Ngeo1477

Lu, Z., Rickaby, R., Kennedy, H., Kennedy, P., Pancost, R., Shaw, S., Lennie, A., Wellner, J., Anderson, J. 2012
An ikaite record of late Holocene climate at the Antarctic Peninsula. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 325-326, 108-115.

Papadimitriou, S, Kennedy, H, Norman, L, Kennedy, P, Dieckmann, GS and Thomas, DN. 2012.
The effect of biological activity, CaCO3 mineral dynamics, and CO2 degassing on the inorganic carbon cycle in sea ice during the late winter-early spring in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, doi: 10.1029/2012JC008058.

Al-Maslamani I., Kennedy H., Walton M.E.M. and Le Vay L. (2012)
Sources of benthic primary production supporting food webs in an arid coastal embayment. Marine Biology 159: 1753-1762

Kennedy H, Jeff Beggins, Carlos M. Duarte, James W. Fourqurean, Marianne Holmer, Núria Marbá, and Jack J. Middelburg 2010
Seagrass sediments as a global carbon sink: Isotopic constraints. Global biogeochemical cycles doi:10.1029/2010GB003848.

Haapaniemi, A.I., Scourse, J.D., Peck, V.L., Kennedy, D.P., Kennedy, H., Hemming, S.R., Furze, M.F.A., Pieńkowski, A.J., Walden, J., Wadsworth, E. and Hall, I.R. (2010)
Source, timing, frequency and flux of ice-rafted detritus to the Northeast Atlantic margin, 30-12 ka: testing the Heinrich precursor hypothesis. Boreas 39, 576-591. doi: 10.1111/j.1502-3885.2010.00141.x

Huxham M, Langat J, Tamooh J, Kennedy H, Mencuccini M, Skov MW, Kairo J (2010)
Decomposition of mangrove roots: effects of location, nutrients, species identity and mix in a Kenyan forest. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 88: 135-142

Papadimitriou, S., Thomas, D.N., Kennedy, H., Kuosa, H., and Dieckmann, G.S. 2009.
Inorganic carbon removal and isotopic enrichment in Antarctic sea ice gap layers during early austral summer. Marine Ecology Progress Series. doi:10.3354/meps08049

Susana Agusti, Carlos M. Duarte, Moira Llabres, Nona S. R. Agawin and Hilary Kennedy 2009
Response of coastal Antarctic phytoplankton to solar radiation and ammonium manipulation: An in situ mesocosm experiment. Journal of Geophysical Research, VOL. 114, G01009, doi:10.1029/2008JG000753, 2009

Al-Maslamani, I.; Le Vay, L., Kennedy, H. (2009)
Feeding on intertidal microbial mats by postlarval tiger shrimp, Penaeus semisulcatus De Haan. Marine Biology 156: 2001-9

Dieckmann, GS, Nehrke, G, Papadimitriou, S, Göttlicher, J., Steininger, R., Kennedy, H., Wolf-Gladrow, D. and Thomas, DN. 2008.
Calcium carbonate as ikaite crystals in Antarctic ice. Geophysical Research Letters Vol. 35. doi:10.1029/2008GL033540

Freitas, P.S., Clarke, L.J., Kennedy, H.A. and Richardson, C.A., 2008
Inter- and intra-specimen variability masks reliable temperature control on shell Mg/Ca ratios in laboratory and field cultured Mytilus edulis and Pecten maximus (bivalvia), Biogeosciences Discussions, 5, 531-572.
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Freitas, P.S., Clarke, L.J., Kennedy, H.A. and Richardson, C.A., 2008
Inter- and intra-specimen variability masks reliable temperature control on shell Mg/Ca ratios in laboratory and field cultured Mytilus edulis and Pecten maximus (bivalvia), Biogeosciences, 5, 1245-1258.
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Marret, F., Scourse, J.D.. Kennedy, H., Ufkes, E. and Jansen, J.H.F. 2008.
Marine production in the Congo-influenced SE Atlantic over the past 30,000 years: a novel dinoflagellate-cyst based transfer function approach. Marine Micropalaeontology 68, 198-222.

Michels, J., GS Dieckmann, DN Thomas, S Schnack-Schiel, A Krell, P Assmy, H Kennedy, S Papadimitriou and B Cisewski. 2008
Short term biogenic particle flux under late spring sea ice in the western Weddell Sea. Deep Sea Research II. 55, 1024-1039.

Al-Maslamani I, Le Vay, L, Kennedy, H and Jones D.A.(2007)
Feeding ecology of the grooved tiger shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus De Haan in the coastal waters of Qatar, Arabian Gulf. Marine Biology 150: 627-637

Papadimitriou, S., DN Thomas, H Kennedy, C Haas, H Kuosa, A Krell and GS Dieckmann. 2007
Biogeochemical composition of natural sea ice brines from the Weddell Sea during early austral summer. Limnology and Oceanography. 52 1809-1823
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Al-Zaidan, A.S.Y., Kennedy, H., Jones, D.A. and Al-Mohanna, S.Y. (2006)
Role of microbial mats in Sulaibikhai Bay (Kuwait) mudflat food webs: evidence from d13C analysis. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 308, 27-36.

Fredericksen, M., Holmer, M., Borum, J. and Kennedy, H. (2006)
Seasonal and spatial variation in sulphide invasion in eelgrass (Zostera marina) as reflected by its sulphur isotopic composition. Limnology and Oceanography, 51(5), 2308-2318.

Freitas, P.F., Clarke, L.J., Kennedy, H., Richardson, C., Abrantes, F., 2006
Environmental and biological controls on elemental (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca) ratios in shells of the king scallop Pecten maximus, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70, 5119-5133.
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Freitas, P.S., Clarke, L.J., Kennedy, H., Richardson, C.A. and Abrantes, F. (2006)
Environmental and biological controls on elemental (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca) ratios in shells of the king scallop, Pecten maximus. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70, 5119-5133.

Kennedy, P., Kennedy, H. and Papadimitriou, S. (2006)
The effect of acidification on the determination of organic carbon, total nitrogen and their stable isotopic composition in algae and marine sediment. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 19, 1063-1068.

Papadimitriou, S., Kennedy, H., Rodrigues, R.M.N.V., Kennedy, D.P. and Heaton, T.H.E. (2006)
Using variation in the chemical and stable isotopic composition of Zostera noltii to assess nutrient dynamics in a temperate seagrass meadow. Organic Chemistry, 37, 1343-1358.

Rickaby, R.E.M., Shaw, S., Bennitt, G., Kennedy, H., Zabel, M. and Lennie, A. (2006)
The potential of ikaite to record the evolution of oceanic d18O. Geology, 34(6), 497- 500.

Freitas, P., Clarke, L.J., Kennedy, H., Richardson, C. and Abrantes, F. (2005)
Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, and stable-isotope (‘delta’180 and ‘delta’13C) ratio profiles from the fan mussel Pinna nobilis: Seasonal records and temperature relationships. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., Vol.6, No. 4, doi. 10.1029/2004GC000872.

Freitas, P.F., Clarke, L.J., Kennedy, H., Richardson, C., Abrantes, F., 2005
Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, and stable-isotope (δ18O and δ13C) ratio profiles from the fan mussel Pinna nobilis: Seasonal records and temperature relationships, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 6, DOI:10.1029/2004GC000872.
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Gacia, E., Kennedy, H., Duarte, C.M., Terrados, J., Marba, N., Papadimitriou, S. and Fortes, M. (2005)
Light-dependence of metabolic balance of a highly productive Philippine seagrass community. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 316, 55-67.

Hughes, D.J., Brown, L., Cook, G.T., Cowie, G., Gage, J.D., Good, E., Kennedy, H., MacKenzie, A.B., Papadimitriou, S., Shimmield, G.B., Thomson, J. and Williams, M. (2005)
The effects of megafaunal burrows on radiotracer profiles and organic composition in deep sea sediments:preliminary results from two sites in the bathyal north-east Atlantic. Deep Sea Research 1, 52, 1 -13.

Kennedy, P., Kennedy, H. and Papadimitriou S. (2005)
The effect of acidification on the determination of organic carbon, total nitrogen and their stable isotopic composition in algae and marine sediment. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 19 (8), 1063-1068.

Lucea, A., Duarte, C.M., Agusti, S. and Kennedy, H. (2005)
Nutrient dynamics and ecosystem metabolism in the Bay of Blanes (NW Mediterranean). Biogeochemistry, 73, 303-323.

Papadimitriou, S., Kennedy, H., Kennedy, D.P. and Borum, J. (2005)
Seasonal and spatial variation in the organic carbon and nitrogen concentration and their stable isotopic composition in Zostera marina (Denmark). Limnology and Oceanography, 50, 1084-1095.

Papadimitriou, S., Kennedy, H., Kennedy, D.P., Duarte, C.M. and Marba, N. (2005)
Sources of organic matter in seagrass-colonized sediments: A stable isotope study of the silt and clay fraction from Posidonia oceanica meadows in the western Mediterranean. Organic Geochemistry, 36, 949-961.

Papadimitriou, S, Kennedy, H, Kattner, G, Dieckmann, GS and Thomas, DN 2004
Experimental evidence for carbonate precipitation and CO2 degassing during sea ice formation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta., 68, 1749-1761.
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Barron, C., Marba, N., Terrados, J., Kennedy, H., and Duarte, C.M. (2004)
Community metabolism and carbon budget dynamics along a gradient of seagrass (Cymodocea nodosa) colonisation. Limnology and Oceanography, 49, 1642-1651.

Kattner, G., Thomas, D.N., Haas, C., Kennedy, H. and Dieckmann, G.S. 2004
Surface ice and gap layers in Antarctic sea ice: highly productive habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 277, 1-12,
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Kennedy, H., Garcia, E., Kennedy, D.P., Papadimitriou, S. and Duarte, C.M. (2004)
Organic carbon sources to SE Asian coastal sediments. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 60, 59-68.

Papadimitriou, S., Kennedy, H. and Thomas, D.N. 2004
Rates of organic carbon oxidation in deep sea sediments in the eastern North Atlantic from pore water profiles of O2 and δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon. Marine Geology, 212, 97-111.
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Richardson, C.A., Peharda, M., Kennedy, H.A., Kennedy, P. and Onofri, V. (2004)
Age, growth rate and season of recruitment of Pinna nobilis (L.)in the Croatian Adriatic determined from Mg:Ca and Sr:Ca shell profiles. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 299, 1-16.

Scourse, J.D., Kennedy, H., Scott, G.A. and Austin, W.E.N. (2004)
Stable isotopic analyses of modern benthic foraminifera from seasonally stratified shelf seas: disequilibria and the ‘seasonal effect’. The Holocene, 14, 747-758.

Gacia, E. Duarte, C.M. Marba, N. Terrados, J. Kennedy, H., Fortes, M.D. and Nguyen Huang T. 2003
Sediment deposition and production in SE Asian seagrass meadows. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Science 56(5-6), 909-919.

Truesdale, V.W., Kennedy,H., Agustí, S. and Waite,T.J. 2003
On the relative constancy of iodate and total- iodine concentrations accompanying phytoplankton blooms initiated in mesocosm experiments in Antarctica. Limnology and Oceanography 48(4) 1569-1574.

Evans, J.R., Austin, W.E.N., Brew, D.S., Wilkinson, I. Kennedy, H.A. 2002
Holocene shelf sea evolution offshore northeast England. Marine Geology 3212 1-19.

Kennedy, H., Thomas, D.N., Kattner, G., Haas, C. and Dieckmann, G.S. 2002
Particulate organic carbon in Antarctic summer sea ice: Concentration and stable carbon isotopic composition. Marine Ecology Progress Series 238, 1-13.
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Owen, R., Kennedy, H, Richardson, C. 2002
Field investigation into partitioning of stable oxygen and carbon isotopes between Pecten maximus calcite and seawater. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta. 66(10) 1727-1737.

Owen, R., Kennedy, H. and Richardson, C. (2002)
Isotopic partitioning between scallop shell calcite and seawater: Effect of shell growth rate. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 66, 1727-1737.

Owen, R., Kennedy, H. and Richardson, C.A. 2002b
An experimental investigation into partitioning of stable isotopes between scallop (Pecten maximus) shell calcite and sea water. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 185(1-2), 163-174.

Owen, R., Kennedy, H. and Richardson, C.A. 2002a
Isotopic partitioning between scallop shell calcite and sea water: Effect of shell growth rate. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 66/10, 1727-1737.

Owen, R., Richardson, C. and Kennedy, H. 2002
The influence of shell growth rate on striae deposition in the scallop Pecten maximus. Journal of the Marine Biological Association, 82, 621-624.

Papadimitriou, S., Kennedy, H., Bentaleb, I. and Thomas, D.N.. 2002
Dissolved organic carbon in sediments from the NE Atlantic Continental Slope. Marine Chemistry 79, 37-47.
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Thomas, D.N., H Kennedy, G Kattner, D Gerdes, C Gough and GS Dieckmann. 2001
Biogeochemistry of platelet ice: Influence on particle flux under land fast sea ice during summer at Drescher Inlet, Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Polar Biology. 24. 486-496. (Also published in 2002. In: Ecological Studies in the Antarctic sea ice Zone (Eds. WE Arntz and A Clarke). pp169-179. Springer Verlag Berlin Heilelberg).
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Thomas, D.N., R. Engbrodt, V. Giannelli, G. Kattner, H. Kennedy, C. Haas and GS Dieckmann. 2001
Dissolved organic matter in Antarctic sea ice. Annals of Glaciology 33. 297-303.

Black., K.S., Fones, G.R., Peppe, O.C., Kennedy, H.A. and Bentaleb, I. (2001)
An autonomous benthic lander: preliminary observations from the UK BENBO thematic programme. Continental Shelf Research, 21, 859–877.

Giannelli, V., Thomas, D.N., Haas, C., Kattner, G., Kennedy, H.A. and Dieckmann, G.S. 2001
Behaviour of dissolved organic matter and inorganic nutrients during experimental sea ice formation. Annals of Glaciology, 33, 317–321.

Hays, G.C., Kennedy, H. and Frost, B.W. (2001)
Individual variability in diel vertical migration of a marine copepod: why some individuals remain at depth when others migrate. Limnology and Oceanography, 46(8), 2050–2054.

Herborg, L.M., Thomas, D.N., Kennedy, H., Haas, C. and Dieckmann, G.S. 2001
Dissolved carbohydrates in Antarctic sea ice. Antarctic Science, 13, 119-125.
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Kennedy, H., Richardson, C.A., Duarte, C.M. and Kennedy, D.P. (2001a)
Diet and association of Pontonia pinnophylax (Decapoda: Natantia: Pontoniinae) occurring in Pinna nobilis (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pinnidae) from the Mediterranean : insights from stable isotope analysis. Journal of Marine Biological Association of the U.K., 81, 177–178.

Kennedy, H., Richardson, C.A., Duarte, C.M. and Kennedy, D.P. (2001b)
Oxygen and carbon stable isotopic profiles of the fan mussel, Pinna nobilis, and reconstruction of sea surface temperatures in the Mediterranean. Marine Biology, 139, 1115–1124.

Southward, E.C., Gebruk, A., Kennedy, H., Southward, A.J. and Chevaldonne;, P. (2001)
Different energy sources for three symbiont–dependent bivalve molluscs at the Logatchev hydrothermal site (Mid–Atlantic Ridge). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K., 81, 655–661.

Gebruk, A.V., Southward, E.C., Kennedy, H. and Southward, A.J. (2000)
Food sources, behaviour and distribution of hydrothermal vent shrimps at the Mid–Atlantic Ridge. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 80(3), 485–499.

Duarte, C.M., Augusti, S., Kennedy, H. and Vaque, D. (1999)
The Mediterranean climate as a template for Mediterranean marine ecosystems. The example of the northeast Spanish Littoral. Progress in Oceanography, 44, 245–270.

Richardson, C.A., Kennedy, H., Duarte, C.M., Kennedy, D.P. and Proud, S.V. (1999)
Age and growth of the fan mussel Pinna nobilis from south–east Spanish Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) meadows. Marine Biology, 133, 205–212.

Richardson, C.A., Kennedy, H., DUARTE, C.M. and PROUD, S.V. 1997.
The occurrence of Pontonia pinnophylax (Decopoda, Natantia, Pontoniinae) in Pinna nobilis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pinnidae) from the Mediterranean. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom , 77, 1227-1230.

Owen, R., Kennedy, H.A. and Richardson, C.A. 1996.
Stable isotope ratios in scallop calcite record oceanic temperature and productivity cycles. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 75, 218.

Additional publications

Kennedy H., Alongi D.M., Karim A Coastal wetlands 2014.
In IPCC 2014, 2013 Supplement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Wetlands, Hiraishi, T., Krug, T., Tanabe, K., Srivastava, N., Baasansuren, J., Fukuda, M. and Troxler, T.G. (eds). Published: IPCC, Switzerland

Papadimitriou S, Kennedy H, Kennedy P, Thomas DN (2014)
Seawater freezing and hydrated sea salt formation: Ikaite in the sea ice of polar oceans. In: Diamond Light Source Annual Review 2013/14, Publisher: Diamond Light Source, pp.42-43

Hilary Kennedy and Mats Björk 2009
Seagrass Meadows. In Laffoley, D.d'A and Grimsditch G (eds)2009 The Management of natural coastal carbon sinks. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 53pp

PDF copies of some of these publications are available (as indicated by hyperlinks in the list) for non-commercial research and educational purposes only. You may not use the material for commercial purposes or make multiple copies without requesting permission from the copyright holder (usually the book or journal publisher).