Run by Bangor Business School
10 Credits or 5 ECTS Credits
Organiser: Prof Jon Williams
Overall aims and purpose
This module provides a comprehensive overview of and insight into international banking. It reviews important relationships between financial development and economic growth, and market structure and competition before examining what international banking is and how it has evolved over time. Internationalisation or globalisation has shaped the operations and behaviour of international banks; we evaluate how banks decide which geographic markets to enter and how they reach their clients via cross-border lending and/or establishing subsidiaries. We critically evaluate the performance of foreign banks before discussing market failure and financial crises. We end by examining the re-emergence of the state in banking.
Financial development and economic growth; Market structure and competition; International banking and international financial centres; Country risk analysis and the location decision; Diversification and M&A in global banking; Syndicated lending; The performance of foreign banks; The International Debt Crisis and Asian Crisis; The global financial crisis and bank regulation.
D- to D+ Demonstration of the required knowledge and techniques but with significant mistakes and little development of the subject beyond lecture material.
B- to B+ Clear understanding of the subject, together with evidence of investigation and understanding of the research literature, but with some theoretical or practical minor errors.
A- to A+ Excellent grasp of the concepts and techniques together with significant evidence of engagement and understanding of the research papers in this area.
C- to C+
C- to C+ Demonstration of the required knowledge and techniques but with mistakes and little development of the subject beyond lecture material.
Explain the impact of internationalisation on bank performance.
Trace the emergence and evolution of international banking.
Evaluate the risks facing international banks.
Appraise why, where and how banks go abroad and analyse outcomes.
Critically evaluate cases of market failure in international banking and their resolution.
Preparing a Group Report on a specific topic normally of topical interest.
A two hour formal examination in which students are asked to answer any two questions from five
Teaching and Learning Strategy
One 2-hour lecture per week.
Revise lecture, read supporting materials and reflect on knowledge gained.
- Literacy - Proficiency in reading and writing through a variety of media
- Self-Management - Able to work unsupervised in an efficient, punctual and structured manner. To examine the outcomes of tasks and events, and judge levels of quality and importance
- Inter-personal - Able to question, actively listen, examine given answers and interact sensitevely with others
- Critical analysis & Problem Solving - Able to deconstruct and analyse problems or complex situations. To find solutions to problems through analyses and exploration of all possibilities using appropriate methods, rescources and creativity.
- Presentation - Able to clearly present information and explanations to an audience. Through the written or oral mode of communication accurately and concisely.
- Teamwork - Able to constructively cooperate with others on a common task, and/or be part of a day-to-day working team
- Mentoring - Able to support, help, guide, inspire and/or coach others
- Argument - Able to put forward, debate and justify an opinion or a course of action, with an individual or in a wider group setting
- Self-awareness & Reflectivity - Having an awareness of your own strengths, weaknesses, aims and objectives. Able to regularly review, evaluate and reflect upon the performance of yourself and others
- Leadership - Able to lead and manage, develop action plans and objectives, offer guidance and direction to others, and cope with the related pressures such authority can result in
Subject specific skills
- knowledge of theories and empirical evidence concerning financial management, risk and the operation of capital markets (in cases of degrees with significant finance content).
- Abstraction. From the study of economic principles and models, students see how one can abstract the essential features of complex systems and provide a useable framework for evaluation and assessment of the effects of policy or other exogenous events. Through this, the typical student will acquire proficiency in how to simplify while still retaining relevance. This is an approach that they can then apply in other contexts, thereby becoming more effective problem-solvers and decision-makers.
- Analysis, deduction and induction. Economic reasoning is highly deductive, and logical analysis is applied to assumption-based models. However, inductive reasoning is also important. The development of such analytical skills enhances students' problem-solving and decision-making ability.
- Quantification and design. Data, and their effective organisation, presentation and analysis, are important in economics. The typical student will have some familiarity with the principal sources of economic information and data relevant to industry, commerce, society and government, and have had practice in organising it and presenting it informatively. This skill is important at all stages in the decision-making process.
- Framing. Through the study of economics, a student should learn how to decide what should be taken as given or fixed for the purposes of setting up and solving a problem, i.e. what the important 'parameters' are in constraining the solution to the problem. Learning to think about how and why these parameters might change encourages a student to place the economic problem in its broader social and political context. This 'framing' skill is important in determining the decision-maker's ability to implement the solutions to problems.
- An appreciation of the nature of the contexts in which finance can be seen as operating, including knowledge of the institutional framework necessary for understanding the role, operation and function of markets and financial institutions (e.g. the economic, legal, regulatory and tax environment, both national and international; the firm; the capital markets and the public sector).
- A knowledge of the major theoretical tools and theories of finance, and their relevance and application to theoretical and practical problems (e.g. concept of arbitrage and examples of its use; financial mathematics and capital budgeting criteria; informational efficiency; optimal risk sharing; portfolio theory; asset pricing models and the valuation of securities; cost of capital; derivative pricing; risk management; information asymmetry; principal agency relationships; signalling; Fisher separation and capital budgeting criteria; behavioural finance; term structure and the movement of interest rates; determination of exchange rates and financial intermediation).
- An ability to interpret financial data including that arising in the context of the firm or household from accounting statements and data generated in financial markets. The interpretation may involve analysis using statistical and financial functions and procedures such as are routinely available in spreadsheets (eg Microsoft Excel) and statistical packages. It may assume the skills necessary to manipulate financial data and carry out statistical and econometric tests (e.g. estimation and interpretation of asset pricing models; financial modelling and projections; event studies and residuals analysis; elements of time series analysis, such as serial correlation mean reversion, and stochastic volatility).
- An understanding of the relationship between financial theory and empirical testing, and application of this knowledge to the appraisal of the empirical evidence in at least one major theoretical area. The appraisal should involve some recognition of the limitation and evolution of empirical tests and theory (eg the efficient markets hypothesis; anomalies; pricing of derivatives and other securities; bond portfolio management; exchange rates; raising capital and capital structure).
- An understanding of the financing arrangements and governance structures of business entities, and an appreciation of how theory and evidence can be combined to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of such arrangements (e.g. decisions as to sources of finance and financial structure; the pricing of corporate securities; the market for corporate control; corporate governance structures and mechanisms; financial planning and international dimensions of finance).
- An understanding of the factors influencing the investment behaviour and opportunities of private individuals (bonds, equities, and derivatives; risk aversion; risk/return trade-offs; portfolio management and performance measurement; pensions and long term savings; the tax treatment of savings and investments; international diversification; forex risk; objectives of and constraints on institutional investors and advisors).
- An understanding of financial service activity in the economy, and an appreciation of how finance theory and evidence can be employed to interpret these services (for example, information asymmetry, adverse selection and moral hazard could be employed to analyse the fundamental nature of services, such as insurance, pensions, bank lending and consumer credit, and also explore fundamental problems arising in such financial service provision. Efficient market hypothesis could be used to explore evidence for fund manager performance and the effectiveness of equity and bond saving services).
- An ability to understand financial statements, and a basic appreciation of the limitations of financial reporting practices and procedures (eg financial statement analysis; the relation between cash flow accounting and accrual accounting; discretionary accounting practices).
- People management: to include communications, team building, leadership and motivating others.
- Problem solving and critical analysis: analysing facts and circumstances to determine the cause of a problem and identifying and selecting appropriate solutions.
- Research: the ability to analyse and evaluate a range of business data, sources of information and appropriate methodologies, which includes the need for strong digital literacy, and to use that research for evidence-based decision-making.
- Commercial acumen: based on an awareness of the key drivers for business success, causes of failure and the importance of providing customer satisfaction and building customer loyalty.
- Numeracy: the use of quantitative skills to manipulate data, evaluate, estimate and model business problems, functions and phenomena.
- Ability to work with people from a range of cultures.
- Articulating and effectively explaining information.
- Communication and listening including the ability to produce clear, structured business communications in a variety of media.
- Conceptual and critical thinking, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.
- Self-management: a readiness to accept responsibility and flexibility, to be resilient, self-starting and appropriately assertive, to plan, organise and manage time.
- Self reflection: self-analysis and an awareness/sensitivity to diversity in terms of people and cultures. This includes a continuing appetite for development.
Courses including this module
Compulsory in courses:
- NN45: BA Accounting and Banking year 3 (BA/AB)
- NN36: BA Accounting and Banking with International Experience year 4 (BA/ABIE)
- N322: BA Banking and Finance year 3 (BA/BIF)
- NR33: BA Banking/Italian year 4 (BA/BIT)
- NR34: BA Banking/Spanish year 4 (BA/BSP)
- NR31: BA French/Banking year 4 (BA/FRB)
- NR32: BA German/Banking year 4 (BA/GB)
- NN44: BSc Accounting and Banking with International Experience year 4 (BSC/ABIE)
- NN43: BSc Accounting and Banking year 3 (BSC/ACCB)
- NN46: BSc Accounting and Banking (4 year with Incorp Found) year 3 (BSC/ACCB1)
- 8V55: BSc Banking and Finance (with International Experience) year 3 (BSC/BFIE)
- N391: BSc Banking and Finance year 3 (BSC/BFIN)
- N39B: BSc Banking and Finance (4 year w Incorporated Foundation) year 3 (BSC/BFIN1)
- N324: BSc Banking and Finance (Bangor International College) year 3 (BSC/BICBF)
Optional in courses:
- NG10: BA Business and Computer Information Systems year 3 (BA/BCIS)