# Modules for course F900 | BSC/ESBSC Environmental Science

These are the modules currently offered on this course in the 2019–20 academic year.

You can also view the modules offered in the years: 2018–19; 2020–21.

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### Compulsory Modules

#### Semester 1

• ONS-1001: Environmental data & analysis (20)
This module, unlike most others, concentrates on giving the student the basic literature searching, numerical and statistical skills required for pursuing the rest of their respective programmes of study. The course relies heavily on computer-based material and so the student also learns how to use and evaluate on-line information, as well as how to converse, discuss and learn via the Blackboard software package. The course starts with an introduction to the Information Literacy Cycle, issues of plagiarism and how to avoid it, and good practice for citing and referencing. Thereafter, the course concentrates on key aspects of any science degree. Lectures introduced include: distributions of populations within scientific data; ideas of probability; unit systems used within science; accuracy and precision; algebraic manipulation; graphing linear systems; and coping with non-linearity in natural systems. Included as part of this will be an introduction to the use of excel and powerpoint - two software packages which are almost essential in the life of an undergraduate student. Following these mainly numerically-related lectures, the module focuses on the scientific method, hypothesis setting and testing; these leading to the fundamental ideas concerning experimental design. These concepts then extend to discussing the importance of replication in scientific datasets. Finally, an introduction to specific statistical tests (parametric and non-parametric) is presented. Library searching and referencing Introduction to distributions within scientific data Ideas of probability Description of distributions Preamble to MS Excel On-line exercises Presentation with MS Powerpoint Unit systems used in science Accuracy & precision. How many decimal places? Introduction to algebraic manipulation Graphing of linear systems Coping with non-linearity in nature (logs etc.) The scientific method: hypothesis setting and testing Introduction to experimental design The importance of replication in scientific datasets Examples of statistical tests: parametric versus non-parametric Regression and correlation ANOVA
or
ONC-1001: Dadansoddi Data Amgylcheddol (20)
• DXX-1006: Field Course: Making Snowdonia (20)
This module combines lectures and fieldwork to provide a broad overview of the processes that have given rise to the distinctive features of the Snowdonian landscape. The module focuses on the five key themes of Geology, Ecology, Forestry, Agriculture and Society. Lectures provide a broad overview of the topics and introduce relevant theoretical and conceptual points. The main areas covered will include: underlying geology; glaciation; post-glacial ecology; soil formation; political history of community, private and state forestry; history of human habitation and resource use; the formation and development of the national park. Students will be taken to key sites that demonstrate how these processes interact and relate to particular places.
or
DXC-1006: Gwaith Maes: Creu Eryri (20)
Bydd y modiwl hwn yn cyfuno darlithoedd a gwaith maes i roi trosolwg bras ar y prosesau sydd wedi creu nodweddion arbennig tirwedd Eryri. Bydd y modiwl yn canolbwyntio ar bum brif thema, sef daeareg, ecoleg, coedwigaeth, amaeth a chymdeithas. Bydd y darlithoedd yn rhoi trosolwg bras ar y pynciau ac yn cyflwyno pwyntiau damcaniaethol a chysyniadol perthnasol. Y prif feysydd dan sylw fydd: daeareg waelodol; rhewlifiant; ecoleg ôl-rewlifol; ffurfio pridd; hanes gwleidyddol y gymuned; coedwigaeth breifat a choedwigaeth y wladwriaeth; hanes preswyliad dynol a defnydd adnoddau; hanes ffurfio a datblygu’r parc cenedlaethol. Bydd myfyrwyr yn cael eu hebrwng i safleoedd allweddol sy’n dangos sut y mae’r prosesau hyn yn rhyngweithio ac yn berthnasol i leoedd penodol.

#### Semester 2

• DXX-1001: Ecosystem Function & Services (20)
Lectures 1. Introduction ecosystem concepts and matter flows (AS) 2. Ecosystem services (SP) 3. Ecosystem development (AS) 4. Land atmosphere interactions (MR) 5. Biodiversity and ecosystem function (AS) 6. Climate and microclimate (MR) 7. Introduction to soils and their classification (DLJ) 8. Soil formation (DLJ) 9. Soil mineralogy and weathering (DLJ) 10. Soil organic matter and chemical properties (DC) 11. 18 Ecosystem productivity (MR) 12. Ecosystem collapse (DLJ) 13. Above and belowground biodiversity (AS) 14. Root processes (AS) 15. Decomposition, destructors and saprotrophic organisms (MDH) 16. Nutrient cycling in ecosystems (PWH) 17. Plant structure, cells, leaves and needles (KS) 18. Photosynthesis types, pigments, environmental control (KS) 19. Transpiration (KS) 20. Plant stress tolerance I (moisture stress) (KS) 21. Water uptake by plants (KS) 22. Plant stress tolerance II (heat and cold) 23. Deserts (MDH) 24. Temperate grasslands (DC) 25. Tropical forests (MR) 26. Wetlands and salt marshes (AS) 27. Boreal forest and polar ecosystems (PWH) Practicals a) Soil Field Trip (Davey Jones to lead) b) Salt marsh ecology (Mark Rayment to lead) c) Microbial diversity (Mike Hale to lead) d) Plant ecophysiology (Katherine Steele to lead)
• ONS-1001: Environmental data & analysis
This module, unlike most others, concentrates on giving the student the basic literature searching, numerical and statistical skills required for pursuing the rest of their respective programmes of study. The course relies heavily on computer-based material and so the student also learns how to use and evaluate on-line information, as well as how to converse, discuss and learn via the Blackboard software package. The course starts with an introduction to the Information Literacy Cycle, issues of plagiarism and how to avoid it, and good practice for citing and referencing. Thereafter, the course concentrates on key aspects of any science degree. Lectures introduced include: distributions of populations within scientific data; ideas of probability; unit systems used within science; accuracy and precision; algebraic manipulation; graphing linear systems; and coping with non-linearity in natural systems. Included as part of this will be an introduction to the use of excel and powerpoint - two software packages which are almost essential in the life of an undergraduate student. Following these mainly numerically-related lectures, the module focuses on the scientific method, hypothesis setting and testing; these leading to the fundamental ideas concerning experimental design. These concepts then extend to discussing the importance of replication in scientific datasets. Finally, an introduction to specific statistical tests (parametric and non-parametric) is presented. Library searching and referencing Introduction to distributions within scientific data Ideas of probability Description of distributions Preamble to MS Excel On-line exercises Presentation with MS Powerpoint Unit systems used in science Accuracy & precision. How many decimal places? Introduction to algebraic manipulation Graphing of linear systems Coping with non-linearity in nature (logs etc.) The scientific method: hypothesis setting and testing Introduction to experimental design The importance of replication in scientific datasets Examples of statistical tests: parametric versus non-parametric Regression and correlation ANOVA
or
ONC-1001: Dadansoddi Data Amgylcheddol
• FXX-1005: Chem. in Biol. and Environ. (10)
Pre-requisites GCSE Chemistry or FXX0010 preferred or equivalent qualifications. This course comprises of three main topics: (6 lectures) Light and Colour Covering aspects of the properties of coloured, fluorescent and chemi-luminescent molecules, their distribution in nature and their reactions. (6 hourlectures) Bio-active Molecules An introduction to biologically active compounds: including carbohydrates, lipids, nitrogen containing compounds and selected plant secondary metabolites and pharmaceuticals. (12 lectures) Chemistry in the Environment This series of lectures will focus on the clean environment and examination of some of the changes caused by chemical pollution. The course will be split into the atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere and will include case studies of important environmental issues (for instance, global warming, eutrophication and nuclear waste). Examples will also be shown of how chemistry can be used to solve environmental problems. Course Team: Dr L Murphy (6 lectures), Dr I Butler (12 lectures), Dr H Tai (6 lectures). RESOURCE IMPLICATIONS ESSENTIAL READING - None RECOMMENDED READING 1. "Environmental Chemistry", 6th Ed., S E Manahan, (Lewis Publishers, 1994) SPECIFIC RESOURCE IMPLICATIONS FOR STUDENTS - None

#### 10 to 30 credits from:

• FXX-0010: Essential Chemistry (10) (Semester 1)
This course comprises a balanced introduction to chemistry. Topics covered in the lectures include: atomic structure and bonding, moles and mole calculations, chemical equilibria, acids, bases and pH and buffers, rate of reaction and basic organic chemistry (introduction to functional groups and some important reactions, isomerism, and nomenclature). The course is backed up by problem solving classes. Dr H Tai (8 lectures), Dr I Butler (8 lectures), Dr L Murphy (8 lectures) RESOURCE IMPLICATIONS ESSENTIAL READING - None RECOMMENDED 1. Introductory chemistry for the environmental sciences - Harrison, Roy M., De Mora, S. J., 1996 2. Chemistry: molecules, matter, and change - Jones, Loretta, Atkins, P. W., c2000 SPECIFIC RESOURCE IMPLICATIONS FOR STUDENTS - None
• DXX-1000: Academic Tutorials&Key Skills (10) (Semester 1)
The module is structurally similar to equivalent modules in the two other schools that form the College of Natural Sciences (i.e. School of Ocean Sciences and School of Biological Sciences) and assessment methods are similar. During the welcome week (i.e. week 0 of the first year), students and their allocated tutor will meet and timetable 5 tutorial sessions to be spread throughout semester 1. In addition there will be a series of research talks given by academic staff in semester 1 and semester 2. During the first of these tutorials, tutors will discuss with their students the nature of the course, and the learning outcomes that are to be achieved. The tutor will lead a discussion on a topic for study, and the students will receive a list of suggested reading and a description of the task to be completed (i.e. essay or presentation). In subsequent tutorials, students will receive formative feedback on presented work, and the tutor will introduce the following topic and task. Topics covered will be chosen by the individual tutor to be relevant and informative to the particular degree stream each student is following, thus the actual course content will vary between individuals. However, in order to ensure consistency across the school, the following overarching themes will be covered, The importance of factual accuracy when conveying information to the public and others The role of a sound evidence base in policy making The importance of interdisciplinary thinking The manner in which these themes are covered may also vary from tutor to tutor, but the following structure will be used: Essay 1 (1500 words) - Graded and used for formative feedback. Bibliography - Marked as part of formal assessment Presentation 1 (5 - 10 minutes) - Marked as part of formal assessment Essay 2 (1500 words) - Marked as part of formal assessment.
or
DXC-1000: Tiwt Acad.&Sgiliau Allweddol (10) (Semester 1)
• DXX-1007: Academic Tutorials&Key Skills (20) (Semester 1 + 2)
The module is structurally similar to equivalent modules in the two other schools that form the College of Natural Sciences (i.e. School of Ocean Sciences and School of Biological Sciences) and assessment methods are similar. During the welcome week (i.e. week 0 of the first year), students and their allocated tutor will meet and timetable 5 tutorial sessions to be spread throughout semester 1. In semester 2 there will be a further 5 tutorial sessions. In addition there will be a series of research talks given by academic staff in semester 1 and semester 2. During the first of these tutorials, tutors will discuss with their students the nature of the course, and the learning outcomes that are to be achieved. The tutor will lead a discussion on a topic for study, and the students will receive a list of suggested reading and a description of the task to be completed (i.e. essay or presentation). In subsequent tutorials, students will receive formative feedback on presented work, and the tutor will introduce the following topic and task. Topics covered will be chosen by the individual tutor to be relevant and informative to the particular degree stream each student is following, thus the actual course content will vary between individuals. However, in order to ensure consistency across the school, the following overarching themes will be covered, The importance of factual accuracy when conveying information to the public and others The role of a sound evidence base in policy making The importance of interdisciplinary thinking The manner in which these themes are covered may also vary from tutor to tutor, but the following structure will be used: Essay 1 (1500 words) - Graded and used for formative feedback. Bibliography - Marked as part of formal assessment Presentation 1 (5 - 10 minutes) - Marked as part of formal assessment Essay 2 (1500 words) - Marked as part of formal assessment. Abstract (300 words) - Marked as part of formal assessment Presentation 2 (5-10 minutes) - Marked as part of formal assessment Essay 3 (1500 words) - Marked as part of formal assessment
• Students without A2 Chemistry must take FXX0010 & DXC/X1007

### Optional Modules

#### 20 to 40 credits from:

• DNS-1003: Ecology & Evolution (20) (Semester 2)
• OSX-1003: Earth, Climate & Evolution (20) (Semester 2)
An exploration of environmental change, including climate change, and its impacts on biological evolution on geological time scales. This includes an introduction to the geological tools and techniques used to decipher and interpret the geological and fossil records. It examines how the earth works: tectonics, climate, the sedimentary cycle, sea level change. The climate system (inputs, budgets), climate change (external forcings, feedback), global cooling and warming. Major events in earth history: e.g. its origin, the origin of life, evolution of bacteria and multicellular organisms, significant biological changes from the late Precambrian to the Quaternary, major climate and eustatic events in geological history, etc. There is emphasis on Quaternary changes - climatic cycles and anthropogenic impacts - since these still resonate in the present day environment. Global climate modelling including hindcasting and prediction.
• BNS-1004: Principles of Life 1 (20) (Semester 1 + 2)
The Chemistry of Life. (17 lectures) Metabolites in the service of man. From vitalism to the metabolome. The molecular origin of life. Molecular building blocks and their properties. Metabolic networks and key metabolic pathways. Enzyme thermodynamics. Protein properties and functions. The Molecular Basis of Inheritance. (13 lectures) Nucleic Acids: Structure and Function. DNA and RNA as molecules of heredity: Structure of the double helix; Base pairing rules. Genomic and in vitro DNA replication. Transcription. Synthesis of mRNA. Promoters and Terminators. Post-transcriptional processing and regulation. Translation: Overview of protein synthesis: Ribosomes as "protein factories". Post-translational processing and targeting. Principles of Genetic Engineering. An introduction to recombinant DNA technology. Topics covered include cloning, strategies; the use of plasmid and bacteriophage vectors, transformation of cells with foreign DNA, construction and screening of gene libraries and the polymerase chain reaction. The lectures will end with an examination of two well known examples of plant and animal genetic engineering. The Cell (8 lectures) The Cell Concept; cell types and variety; membrane systems structure and function; membrane transport and receptor systems; cytoskeleton, cell junctions and extracellular matrix; cell cycles and apoptosis.
• DXX-1005: Earth Systems and Processes (20) (Semester 1)
Key module topics will include: 1. Earth systems and earth processes: introduction and key concepts 2. The Geosphere: key geological concepts and processes. 3. Weathering processes 4. The atmosphere: global and regional atmospheric circulation 5. Atmosphere-Ocean interaction: influence on climate, ENSO & NAO cycles & cyclones 6. The hydrosphere: introduction to the hydrological cycle, run-off generation & basic principles of hydrology. 7. Glacial environments: introduction to ice-mass description, ice mass movement and glacial geomorphology. 8. The biosphere: introduction to soils 9. The biosphere: introduction to biogeography 10. Introduction to global biogeochemical cycles: the Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles.

### Compulsory Modules

#### Semester 1

• DXX-2000: GIS & Research Methods (20)
Geographical Information Systems: data types, raster and vector data; primary sources, data capture; secondary data sources, data providers; data export formats and data translation; data projections, OSGB and WGS84 lat long; Global Positioning System (GPS), position fixing; organisation of spatial data; Structured Query Language (SQL); geoprocessing, overlay and boolean data, spatial sampling, modelling and analytical approaches; potential uses of GIS utilising a range of examples. Statistics: principles of hypothesis generation, sampling, study design, spatial methods, 1 and 2 way ANOVA for completely randomised designs; 1 factor randomised block ANOVA; correlation coefficient; simple and multiple linear regression; social research methods. Computer-based data manipulation, analysis and presentation. Students will be encouraged to develop effective learning skills including: production of a honours project proposal; communication skills; and time management.
• DXX-2002: Water, air & soil pollution (20)
1. Introduction to soil quality 2. Key concept: Soil water 3. Key concept: Nutrient cycling in ecosystems 4. Key concept: Soil biology and biodiversity 5. Key concept: Nutrient function and plant uptake 6. Key concept: The rhizosphere 7. Key concept: Mycorrhizas and N2 fixation 8. Global problems I: Soil salinity 9. Global problems II: Soil acidity 10. Global problems III: Human and animal pathogens 11. Global problems IV: Organic pollutants 12. Global problems V: Food security (inc. pests and fertilizers) 13. Global problems VI: Soil erosion 14. Global problems VII: Water use and conservation 15. Global problems VIII: Heavy metals 16. Introduction to air quality 17. Global problems III: Volcanic/Particulate matter (PM10s etc) 18. Global problems IV: Radon 19. Introduction to water quality 20. Global problems I: Eutrophication 21. Global problems II: Sewage and waterborne diseases 22. Global problems III: Pesticides and pollutants
• FXX-2105: Instr & Anal Meth non Chemists (20)
Pre-requisites: GCSE Chemistry or GCSE General Science: For each topic below the basic theory, instrumentation, hands on experiments and data analysis will be covered. (1) Thin Layer Chromatography (2) Quantification of metals and non metals (3) Infrared (4) Mass spectrometry (5) Nuclear magnetic resonance (6) Using Techniques in Combination (7) UV/Vis (8) Basic electrochemistry (9) X-ray and electron diffraction, (10) Radiochemsitry (11) Gas Chromatography (12) High Pressure Liquid Chromatography Course Team: Dr E H Harper Laboratory & Teaching Academic (Lab Supervision). Semester 1 Introductory Lectures Dr L Jones, Dr M A Beckett, Dr P J Murphy, Dr L Murphy, Prof B Paizs Semester 2 Introductroy Lectures Dr J Thomas, Dr L Jones, Dr I Butler, Dr C Gwenin, RESOURCE IMPLICATIONS ESSENTIAL READING - None RECOMMENDED READING 1. The Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds by Robert M. Silverstein, Francis X. Webster, and David Kiemle -John Wiley & Sons, 2005 2.Analytical Chemistry by Seamus P.J. Higson (2003) – OUP 3.Chemical Instrumentation (Oxford Chemistry Primers) by Richard P. Wayne 4. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry by Douglas A. Skoog, Donald M. West James F Holler (2003) - Brooks Cole 5.Crystal Structure Determination (Oxford Chemistry Primers) by William Clegg (1998) SPECIFIC RESOURCE IMPLICATIONS FOR STUDENTS - None

#### Semester 2

• DXX-2000: GIS & Research Methods
Geographical Information Systems: data types, raster and vector data; primary sources, data capture; secondary data sources, data providers; data export formats and data translation; data projections, OSGB and WGS84 lat long; Global Positioning System (GPS), position fixing; organisation of spatial data; Structured Query Language (SQL); geoprocessing, overlay and boolean data, spatial sampling, modelling and analytical approaches; potential uses of GIS utilising a range of examples. Statistics: principles of hypothesis generation, sampling, study design, spatial methods, 1 and 2 way ANOVA for completely randomised designs; 1 factor randomised block ANOVA; correlation coefficient; simple and multiple linear regression; social research methods. Computer-based data manipulation, analysis and presentation. Students will be encouraged to develop effective learning skills including: production of a honours project proposal; communication skills; and time management.
• DXX-2012: Field Course: ACE (20)
A one week course combining field practical sessions based in Bangor and field visits away from Bangor. The practical element illustrates the conflict between land use for economic production and conservation & biodiversity outcomes. Specifically the practical sessions will investigate the relationship between diffuse environmental pollution and biodiversity levels. The field visits provide further examples of conflict and also illustrate how conflict resolution has been tackled and how we can evaluate the relative success of different approaches.
• FXX-2105: Instr & Anal Meth non Chemists
Pre-requisites: GCSE Chemistry or GCSE General Science: For each topic below the basic theory, instrumentation, hands on experiments and data analysis will be covered. (1) Thin Layer Chromatography (2) Quantification of metals and non metals (3) Infrared (4) Mass spectrometry (5) Nuclear magnetic resonance (6) Using Techniques in Combination (7) UV/Vis (8) Basic electrochemistry (9) X-ray and electron diffraction, (10) Radiochemsitry (11) Gas Chromatography (12) High Pressure Liquid Chromatography Course Team: Dr E H Harper Laboratory & Teaching Academic (Lab Supervision). Semester 1 Introductory Lectures Dr L Jones, Dr M A Beckett, Dr P J Murphy, Dr L Murphy, Prof B Paizs Semester 2 Introductroy Lectures Dr J Thomas, Dr L Jones, Dr I Butler, Dr C Gwenin, RESOURCE IMPLICATIONS ESSENTIAL READING - None RECOMMENDED READING 1. The Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds by Robert M. Silverstein, Francis X. Webster, and David Kiemle -John Wiley & Sons, 2005 2.Analytical Chemistry by Seamus P.J. Higson (2003) – OUP 3.Chemical Instrumentation (Oxford Chemistry Primers) by Richard P. Wayne 4. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry by Douglas A. Skoog, Donald M. West James F Holler (2003) - Brooks Cole 5.Crystal Structure Determination (Oxford Chemistry Primers) by William Clegg (1998) SPECIFIC RESOURCE IMPLICATIONS FOR STUDENTS - None

#### 20 credits from:

• DXX-2011: Catchment Processes (20) (Semester 2)
This module will provide a management-oriented understanding of the factors influencing the quality and quantity of soil and water resources. The hydrological cycle and water balance in catchments; rainfall/runoff relationships; catchment characteristics; catchment structure ¿ hillslope, channel & floodplain domains; sedimentation; the role of vegetation and land-use changes in catchment stability, hydrological processes and soil erosion; water quality; temperate and tropical catchment results and case studies; degrading processes in catchments; legislation and the Water Framework Directive.
• DXC-2018: Geomorffoleg Afonol (20) (Semester 1)
Amcan y modiwl yma yw cyflwyno myfyrwyr i’r prosesau allweddol sydd yn rheoli symudiad dŵr a gwaddodion drwy’r basn afon dros amrywiaeth o raddfeydd amserol a gofodol. Gellir deal y symudiadau yma fel rheolydd ac fel sgil-effaith o forffoleg y basn, ac fe archwilir y rhyngweithiad sensitif yma yng nghyd-destun y basn cyfan a pharthau annatod y llethr a’r sianel.
• Students take either DXC-2018 OR DXX-2011.

### Optional Modules

#### 20 credits from:

• BNS-2002: Evolution & Genetics (20) (Semester 1)
Evolution by natural selection, heredity, genetic variation, the Hardy Weinberg model, gene flow, random genetic drift and selective processes, population differentiation, taxonomy and biodiversity, micro- and macro-evolutionary processes. Specific attention is paid to the design of field and experimental studies using a range of case studies to elucidate the drivers of evolutionary change.
or
BNC-2002: Esblygiad a Geneteg (20) (Semester 1)
• OSX-2004: Estuary & Shelf Sea Processes (20) (Semester 1)
This course introduces the fundamental processes occurring in shelf seas and estuaries and examines the relationship between physics, chemistry and sediments. Topics covered include: air-sea interaction (heat, gases etc) water column structure: seasonal stratification and mixing inputs of fresh water at the coast and estuarine circulation movement of sediments in shelf seas and estuaries nutrients and chemical origin, cycling and fate in shelf sea palaeo-oceanography of shelf seas The course is taught through lectures, laboratory and computer practicals and a field course.
• OSX-2005: Remote Sensing & Geophysics (20) (Semester 2)
Geodesy - Shape of the Earth - The Geoid - Datums - Co-ordinate systems and transformations - Projections Position fixing systems - GPS - Galileo and Glonass - Underwater positioning systems Remote sensing - Introduction - Remote sensing systems - Corrections applied to the data - Processing of remote sensing data - Applications of instrumentation Acoustic methods - Acoustic theory - Acoustic instrumentation and survey techniques - Applications of seafloor mapping
• DXX-2006: Climate Change (20) (Semester 1)
1. Major concepts; climate and environmental change and `global warming¿. 2. Temporal and spatial patterns of historical climate change. Major glacial/interglacial cycles, Quaternary climate change (Last Glacial Maximum, Younger Dryas Hypsithermal, Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age). Potential contributing factors (orbital forcing, sunspot activity). Hemispheric differences in climate variation. 3. Use of environmental proxies. The course will cover the use of a range of environmental proxies for reconstructing past climate at a range of temporal and spatial scales. This will include the use of dendrochronological records, palaeo-atmospheric chemistry (ice-cores), speleotherms, varved sedimentary deposits, documentary records, primary climate observations. 4. Environmental and human impacts of climate change. Focusing on both historical and contemporary issues: megafaunal extinctions, population stress in the LIA, drought in sub-Saharan Africa. 5. The contemporary climate change debate. Depiction in the popular media, causes, magnitude. Evidence presented in the peer-reviewed, scientific literature. 6. Future predictions of climate change. IPCC, GCMs. 7. Adaption to climate change. Focus on both attempts to address potential causes (CO2 and `greenhouse gas¿ releases, Kyoto Protocol, Copenhagen Summit, carbon capture, renewable energy, energy efficiency, carbon credits, offsetting) and impacts (impacts of climatic change upon weather and the environment, changing frequency and magnitude of extreme events). 8. Socio-economic impacts of climate change.
• DXX-2008: Geohazards (20) (Semester 1)
• Hazards and disaster: what they are, complexity, risk and management • Historical perspectives: events, reconstruction and what we’ve learnt, early warning systems • Hazards: types, forecasting, planning • Hazards and the future: planning, resilience and reduction
• DXX-2021: Plant Diversity & Conservation (20) (Semester 2)

### Compulsory Modules

#### Semester 1

• DXX-3001: Environmental Geochemistry (10)
1. Context and major concepts: key terminology, introduction to the primary environment and natural elemental abundance, importance of mineralization. 2. Introduction to the secondary environment. Geochemical behaviour in the secondary environment, cations and valency, processes of sorption, importance of pH and Eh. 3. Human activities as sources of metals to the environment: mining, smelting, petrol combustion, waste incineration, use of sewage sludge. 4. Natural release of metals to the environment: processes of physical, biological and chemical weathering, volcanic activity, determining `background' metal concentrations. 5. Processes of contaminant metal dispersal within the secondary environment. 6. Mapping of environmental geochemistry and the use of geochemical maps. 7. Geochemistry and human health: toxicity and deficiency. 8. The development, application and relevance of environmental legislation: e.g. EU WFD.
• FXX-3101: Pollution and Environment (10)
The course covers a range of topics on inorganic and organic pollutants with emphasis on sensing, measurements and amelioration strategies. The course is taught as a combination of course work and traditional lectures. The focus will be: identification of pollutants; measurement of their concentrations; techniques to deal with pollutants. Course Team: Dr L Murphy (16 workshops - inorganic pollutants), Dr C Gwenin (8 lectures, sensors), Prof M Baird (8 lectures, organic pollutants). RESOURCE IMPLICATIONS ESSENTIAL READING none RECOMMENDED READING 1. Environmental Chemistry, A global perspective by Gary W vanLoon and Stephen J Duffy (2010) 2. Environmental Chemistry, 9th Ed., S E Manahan, 2009 3. Principles of Chemical Sensors, J Janata 2nd Ed. 2009 4. Chemical Sensors, Robert W. Cattral (OUP Chemistry Primer) SPECIFIC RESOURCE IMPLICATIONS FOR STUDENTS None
• DXX-3506: C. Issues in Env & related Sci (10)
This module allows the student to undertake a desk-based research project looking in depth at a current environmental or related issue. The module runs in Semester 1 and culminates in the production of a written project report and a seminar. The issues are chosen by the student to reflect his/her interests and can range from local issues through to global issues. The range of 'popular' current issues will be investigated by individual students. Sources such as tabloid and broadsheet daily and Sunday newspapers, broadcast media, the internet, 'popular' scientific journals and the more rigorously refereed scientific journals should be consulted. The topic should be different from that chosen in the student's experimental research project. Topics should be selected in consultation with the module organizer. The module involves student-led research into a specific topic. Apart from an introductory lecture there are no formal lectures or practicals associated with this module. At the end of Semester 1, each student will present their topic in the form of a 20 minute interview and will submit a project report on their chosen topic. Both the interview and project report elements will be assessed.
or
DXC-3506: Materion Cyfoes yr Amgylchedd (10)
• DXX-3701: Honours project (30)
The module allows students to undertake an extensive and original independent investigation of a topic of relevance to their degree programme. It may involve practical experimentation in the laboratory and/or field or a non-experimental study. It is conducted under the supervision of a member of academic staff. The module also provides opportunities for students to develop their own ideas, to show initiative, to work on their own and to follow an agreed plan, and for these attributes to be assessed. The project must be written up in the form of a research honours project, to a specified format. In addition, it may also be assessed by a poster presentation, oral presentation, or other method, that may vary according to the degree programme, but that will be specified at the start of the module.
or
DXC-3701: Project Anrhydedd (30)
Mae'r modiwl hwn yn caniatáu i fyfyrwyr gynnal ymchwiliad annibynnol eang a gwreiddiol o bwnc sy'n berthnasol i'w rhaglen gradd. Mae'n bosib y bydd yn cynnwys arbrofi ymarferol mewn labordy a / neu drwy waith maes, neu astudiaeth nad yw'n ymwneud ag arbrofi. Fe'i cynhelir o dan oruchwyliaeth aelod o'r staff academaidd. Mae'r modiwl hefyd yn rhoi cyfle i fyfyrwyr ddatblygu eu syniadau eu hunain, dangos eu gallu i fentro, gweithio'n annibynnol ac i ddilyn cynllun y cytunwyd arno, ac i'r priodoleddau hyn gael eu hasesu. Mae'n rhaid i waith ysgrifenedig y project fod ar ffurf adroddiad ymchwil, mewn fformat penodol. Bydd hefyd yn cael ei asesu ar sail cyflwyniad llafar mewn seminar; bydd y manylion ar gael ar ddechrau'r modiwl.

#### Semester 2

• DXX-3402: Waste Management & Utilisation (10)
The world is using natural resources at an unprecedented rate, often with little thought given to the efficient use of those resources or the consequences of disposal. The current trend has led to generation of significant volumes of waste. This often represents a loss of potentially valuable product, in addition to causing a wide range of issues related to pollution and health, greenhouse gas emissions, and limited landfill availability. Governments and society now have to meet increasingly stringent targets for reducing waste volumes; indeed, effective waste management and utilisation is now regarded as an inherent part of sustainable development. This module will explore the implications of our present waste generation and materials utilisation philosophy, will look at the options and issues surrounding different strategies for dealing with waste, and will consider the changes needed to manage and utilise waste and materials in a sustainable manner.
• DXX-3507: Renewable Energy (10)
The first part of the module briefly examines current energy resources, use and efficiency (3h). The next part of the course examines alternative renewable resources for fossil fuels involving combustion technologies (biogas, liquid biofuels and biomass, 4h). Following this renewable energy topics not involving combustion technologies are covered (wind, solar PV, solar thermal, geothermal, heat pump technologies, hydro, wave and tidal) along with associated issues of energy storage and distribution. Finally the course will examine other options being discussed in the UK and worldwide (e.g. fracking, CCS and nuclear energy). The course includes a field trip to Electric mountain, a pumped water energy storage scheme in Llanberis and a series of smaller scale projects at the National Trusts, Hafod y Llan. The conclusion of the course is conference with visiting speakers covering renewable energy technologies and their application.
• DXX-3701: Honours project
The module allows students to undertake an extensive and original independent investigation of a topic of relevance to their degree programme. It may involve practical experimentation in the laboratory and/or field or a non-experimental study. It is conducted under the supervision of a member of academic staff. The module also provides opportunities for students to develop their own ideas, to show initiative, to work on their own and to follow an agreed plan, and for these attributes to be assessed. The project must be written up in the form of a research honours project, to a specified format. In addition, it may also be assessed by a poster presentation, oral presentation, or other method, that may vary according to the degree programme, but that will be specified at the start of the module.
or
DXC-3701: Project Anrhydedd
Mae'r modiwl hwn yn caniatáu i fyfyrwyr gynnal ymchwiliad annibynnol eang a gwreiddiol o bwnc sy'n berthnasol i'w rhaglen gradd. Mae'n bosib y bydd yn cynnwys arbrofi ymarferol mewn labordy a / neu drwy waith maes, neu astudiaeth nad yw'n ymwneud ag arbrofi. Fe'i cynhelir o dan oruchwyliaeth aelod o'r staff academaidd. Mae'r modiwl hefyd yn rhoi cyfle i fyfyrwyr ddatblygu eu syniadau eu hunain, dangos eu gallu i fentro, gweithio'n annibynnol ac i ddilyn cynllun y cytunwyd arno, ac i'r priodoleddau hyn gael eu hasesu. Mae'n rhaid i waith ysgrifenedig y project fod ar ffurf adroddiad ymchwil, mewn fformat penodol. Bydd hefyd yn cael ei asesu ar sail cyflwyniad llafar mewn seminar; bydd y manylion ar gael ar ddechrau'r modiwl.

### Optional Modules

#### 40 credits from:

• BNS-3001: Freshwater Ecosystems (10) (Semester 1)
Introduction to freshwater ecosystems. Habitat type: Plants & algae, physical & chemical characteristics, geomorphology/hydrology & structure of freshwater ecosystems. Classification of lakes, rivers & wetlands. Freshwater communities & relationships Human impacts on freshwaters & approaches to conservation & restoration. Fisheries ecology, life assessment and management & fisheries economics
• DXX-3018: Rivers, Coast and Oceans (20) (Semester 2)
• DXX-3212: Forest Ecosystems (10) (Semester 2)
The module is based on a series of lectures and seminars. The lectures provide a conceptual background and overview. The seminars are conducted by groups of students and provide an opportunity for in-depth study and discussion. Seminars are based on research papers which are critically reviewed and presented by a group of students in the class. The lecturer provides a platform for understanding the topic area and provokes discussion about the background of the paper, assumptions, weaknesses, and politics eg. Why did the author write that? Lecture Topics 1. Ecosystem Theory 2. Ecosystem Processes 3. Warming 4. Fire 5. Ozone 6. CO2 7. Soil Acidification 8. Nitrogen Deposition 9. Genetic Diversity 10. Tropical Forests
• DXX-3305: Field Course: Tenerife (20) (Semester 1)
A one-week field course on the environmentally diverse island of Tenerife. You will be taken to a variety of sites which demonstrate a range of rock, soil and vegetation types, and a range of conservation and sustainability issues. Some of these will involve meeting and discussion with local experts. You will spend time towards the end of the week working as pairs or small teams on a project designed by you and evolved in discussion with the teaching staff.
• DXX-3615: Environmental Policy (10) (Semester 1)
Policy and the environment Basic concepts of government, sovereignty, politics, democracy. General features of political systems and governments in the UK and internationally. The role of diverse actors in the policy process: including politicians and parliaments, governments, bureaucracies and agencies, NGOs, media, interest groups and supranational bodies. Theories of politics and policy-making, including international relations.
• DXX-3707: Catchment Modelling & Analysis (10) (Semester 2)
Major themes covered 1. Importance of models in scientific inquiry 2. A brief history of different approaches to catchment modelling 3. Introduction to MATLAB programming language 4. Obtaining and processing the input data for models 5. Modelling of hydrological processes 6. Introduction to biogeochemical cycles in landscapes 7. Modelling of nutrient cycling and transport in catchments 8. Automated calibration of model parameters 9. Lumped vs. distributed catchment models 10. Polyscape: A landscape analysis tool for modelling the effects of multi-stakeholder interaction in catchment management decisions