Nazi Germany 1933-1945
Run by School of History, Philosophy and Social Sciences
20 Credits or 10 ECTS Credits
Organiser: Dr Nikolaos Papadogiannis
Overall aims and purpose
Nazi Germany constitutes one of the most controversial and challenging subjects in modern History. This course aims to examine various facets of state and society in Nazi Germany, in order to assess factors that enabled the National Socialists to consolidate their rule: was it just terror or also a degree of consensus? In so doing, it aims to encourage students to familiarize themselves as well as to critically reflect on the notion of “totalitarianism”.
1) Overview 1: The Rise of the Nazi Party and the Nazi Seizure of Power 2) Overview 2: The Path to War and World War II 3) The Nazi Movement, the Civil Service and the Army 4) Economy and Labour Relations 5) Gender Relations 6) Youth 7) Consumption and Leisure 8) Religion: Christianity, Paganism, Islam 9) The Holocaust 10) Considering concepts: Fascism, Totalitarianism, Political Religion
D+ (48%) Work is marked D+ if it: shows evidence of acceptable amounts of reading, but does not go much beyond what was referenced in lecture notes and/or a basic textbook; covers much of the necessary ground but fails to discuss one or a few vital aspects of a topic; deploys relevant material but partly fails to combine it into a coherent whole, or sustains a clear argument only for the greater part of the piece; deploys some evidence to support individual points, but sometimes fails to do so, or shows difficulty in weighing evidence, or chooses unreliable evidence; displays an awareness that the past can be interpreted in different ways but without devoting sustained discussion to this; is for the most part correctly presented but has sections where there are serious problems in presentation, style, spelling, grammar, or paragraph construction (but see section on dyslexia below); and uses references and bibliography where needed but occasionally misunderstands their appropriate use or makes mistakes in their presentation.
D (45%) Work is marked D if it: shows evidence of an acceptable minimum of reading, based partly on lecture notes and/or a basic textbook; covers some of the necessary ground but fails to discuss some large and vital aspects of a topic; deploys some relevant material but partly fails to combine it into a coherent whole or sustains a clear argument for only some parts of the piece; deploys some evidence to support individual points but often fails to do so or shows difficulty weighing evidence or chooses unreliable, atypical or inappropriate evidence; shows some awareness that the past can be interpreted in different ways but the differences will not receive sustained discussion or analysis; is often correctly presented but has sections where there are serious difficulties in presentation, style, spelling, grammar, or paragraph construction (but see section on dyslexia below); and uses references and bibliography where needed but sometimes misunderstands their appropriate use or makes serious mistakes in their presentation.
D- (42%) Work is marked D- if it: shows evidence of an acceptable minimum of reading, based largely on lecture notes and/or a basic textbook; covers parts of the necessary ground but fails to discuss some large and vital aspects of a topic; deploys some potentially relevant material but fails to bring it together into a coherent whole or sustains a clear argument for only parts of the piece; occasionally deploys evidence to back some individual points but often fails to do so or shows difficulty weighing evidence or chooses unreliable, atypical, or inappropriate evidence; may show some awareness that the past can be interpreted in different ways but the differences will not receive sustained discussion or analysis; is in part correctly presented but has sections where there are serious difficulties in presentation, style, spelling, grammar, or paragraph construction (but see section on dyslexia below); and uses references and bibliography where needed but sometimes misunderstands their appropriate use or makes serious mistakes in their presentation.
A+ (87%) At this level, first-class work will also have its argument supported by an impressive wealth and relevance of detail, but will further deploy the evidence consistently accurately and give indications of deploying unexpected primary and secondary sources. It will habitually demonstrate a particularly acute and critical awareness of the historiography, including conceptual approaches, and give a particularly impressive account of why the conclusions reached are important within a particular historical or archaeological debate. It will show a particularly sophisticated approach to possible objections, moderating the line taken in the light of counter-examples, or producing an interesting synthesis of various contrasting positions. It will be original work. The standards of content, argument, and analysis expected will be consistently first-class work. In essays standards of presentation will be very high.
A (80%) At this level, first-class work will have its argument supported by an impressive wealth and relevance of detail. It will usually also demonstrate an acute awareness of historiography, and give an impressive account of why the conclusions reached are important within a particular historical or archaeological debate. It may show a particularly subtle approach to possible objections, moderating the line taken in the light of counter-examples, or producing an interesting synthesis of various contrasting positions. Overall, the standards of content, argument, and analysis expected will be consistently superior to top upper-second work. In essays and dissertations standards of presentation will be high.
A- (74%) A first-class mark at this level is often earned simply by demonstrating one or more of the features of a good upper-second essay to a peculiar degree, for example presenting a particularly strong organization of argument, strong focus, wide range of reading, engagement with the historiography, depth of understanding, an unobjectionable style, and strong presentation.
C- to C+
C+ (58%) Work will receive a C+ mark if it: shows evidence of solid reading, but remains partially superficial; covers the important aspects of the relevant field, but in some places lacks depth; advances a coherent and relevant argument; employs some evidence to back its points; and is presented reasonably well with only a few or no mistakes. It will also contain appropriate references and bibliography, which may, however, be slightly erratic and/or partially insufficient.
C (55%) Work will receive a C mark if it: shows evidence of solid reading, but remains superficial; covers most of the important aspects of the relevant field, but lacks depth; advances a coherent and largely relevant argument; employs some limited evidence to back its points; and is presented reasonably well with only limited mistakes. It will also contain appropriate references and bibliography, which may, however, contain some mistakes or be slightly erratic and/or partially insufficient.
C- (52%) Work will receive a C- mark if it: shows evidence of solid reading, but little knowledge of in-depth studies (for first-year work the student may not have read beyond a few standard works; at second or third year the student may not have read a good selection of journal articles and specialist monographs); covers most of the important aspects of the relevant field, but lacks depth or misses a significant area (for second- and third-year work this may mean that it fails to deploy the historical details found in specialist literature); advances a coherent, and sometimes relevant argument, but drifts away from tackling the task in hand (for example, by ordering the argument in an illogical way, becoming distracted by tangential material, or lapsing into narrative of only partial pertinence); usually employs evidence to back its points, but occasionally fails to do so or deploys an insufficient range; displays an awareness that the past can be interpreted in different ways, but may fail to get to the heart of the central scholarly debate or fully understand a key point (in second- and third-year work this may extend to a failure to discuss important subtleties or ambiguities in the evidence, or to a lack of awareness of the current state of historical debate); is reasonably well presented and contains appropriate references and bibliography, but makes some mistakes in presentation or appropriate use.
B+ (68%) Work will receive a B+ mark if it is consistently strong in: covering the necessary ground in depth and detail; advancing a well structured, relevant, and focused argument; analysis and deployment of an appropriate range of historical evidence and consideration of possible differences of interpretation; and is correctly presented with references and bibliography where appropriate.
B (65%) Work will receive a B mark if it: is clear that it is based on solid reading; covers the necessary ground in depth and detail; advances a well-structured, relevant, and focused argument; analyses and deploys an appropriate range of historical evidence and considers possible differences of interpretation; and is correctly presented with references and bibliography where appropriate.
B- (62%) Work will receive a B- mark if it: is clearly based on solid reading; covers the necessary ground in some depth and detail; advances a properly-structured, relevant, and focused argument; analyses and deploys an appropriate range of historical evidence and considers possible differences of interpretation; and is correctly presented with references and bibliography where appropriate.
An in-depth knowledge of Nazi Germany during 1933-1945.
A detailed awareness and an ability to judge between the competing historical interpretations of Hitler’s rise to power, his consolidation of power and his anti-Semitic policies.
An ability to analyse primary evidence.
An ability to present clear, cogent, evidence-based (and fully referenced) argument in degree essays.
Students will be expected to highlight the extent to which they have understood the learning outcomes through writing clear cogent essays which will show their knowledge of important issues and historiographical debates, their understanding of the structure, policies and practices of Nazi Germany. Questions will test knowledge and understanding of the strategies used to secure and maintain power. Answers will be graded by considering the scope of reading; content; focus and clarity of argument; analysis; presentation; and the ability to use references and bibliography appropriately. Answers will be expected to show detailed knowledge of the topic they deal with; to analyse evidence and interpretations in depth; and to engage with current historiographical controversies.
|WRITTEN PLAN||Essay plan||
Please prepare an essay plan, based on the question you have chosen for your essay. This should clearly outline: a) Your main line of argument b) the structure of your essay (namely the sections it will contain) and c) a brief description of the main ideas that appear in 5 articles or books you will use for your essay.
Please choose any of the trigger questions you will find below under the lecture and seminar topic of each weekly session. Your presentation should be accompanied by a 1-page handout, which should include the structure and the main points of the presentation. The presentation should last for around 10 minutes and will be followed by discussion. Please bear in mind that oral presentations are supposed to be addressed to fellow students. They should benefit from them. Try to explain the subject matter with great clarity. Important points to keep in mind for your presentation are the following: a) key events and b) historical research on the topic you have chosen. Finally, the assessment criteria for your presentation are: Delivery of presentation, coherence of presentation and argument, quality and usefulness of handout, accuracy and choice of information and awareness of historical context and of any historiographical issues.
|Written assignment, including essay||Poster||
This should be a book review in the form of a poster. The poster should cover 1 page (A2). Please use Powerpoint for this. The module co-ordinator will offer guidance in this direction. It should not exceed 800 words. Try to avoid writing full sentences; use bullet points instead. Please avoid jargon: imagine that this poster will be seen by someone who has a university degree, but not in history. Please try to include some images associated with the specific topic of your poster, which will make your point clearer. Aim for something that is eye-catching and not text-heavy. Very important: please use font size that is readable (ideally Times new Roman 11 or 12). Print a black and white draft version of your poster to check this as well as to proofread it.
Please address a book linked with the module that you find pathbreaking. Try to make clear how this book has challenged notions deeply entrenched not only in academia, but also beyond it, affecting public debates on memory in general in the contexts we have studied. Rather than describing the book, try to focus on how you critically reflect on it.
Potential structure of the poster: title; a brief introduction to the topic; summary of the methodology/main findings of the book you have selected and their significance; brief reference to the weaker aspects of this work, in your opinion; brief bibliography. You may wish to place each of these into separate text boxes.
Assessment criteria for the poster: Accuracy of information, historiographical awareness, language clear to a non-specialist, choice of images.
Teaching and Learning Strategy
11 seminars- 1 per week
11 lectures- 1 per week
- Literacy - Proficiency in reading and writing through a variety of media
- Numeracy - Proficiency in using numbers at appropriate levels of accuracy
- Self-Management - Able to work unsupervised in an efficient, punctual and structured manner. To examine the outcomes of tasks and events, and judge levels of quality and importance
- Exploring - Able to investigate, research and consider alternatives
- Information retrieval - Able to access different and multiple sources of information
- Inter-personal - Able to question, actively listen, examine given answers and interact sensitevely with others
- Critical analysis & Problem Solving - Able to deconstruct and analyse problems or complex situations. To find solutions to problems through analyses and exploration of all possibilities using appropriate methods, rescources and creativity.
- Safety-Consciousness - Having an awareness of your immediate environment, and confidence in adhering to health and safety regulations
- Presentation - Able to clearly present information and explanations to an audience. Through the written or oral mode of communication accurately and concisely.
- Teamwork - Able to constructively cooperate with others on a common task, and/or be part of a day-to-day working team
- Mentoring - Able to support, help, guide, inspire and/or coach others
- Argument - Able to put forward, debate and justify an opinion or a course of action, with an individual or in a wider group setting
- Self-awareness & Reflectivity - Having an awareness of your own strengths, weaknesses, aims and objectives. Able to regularly review, evaluate and reflect upon the performance of yourself and others
- Leadership - Able to lead and manage, develop action plans and objectives, offer guidance and direction to others, and cope with the related pressures such authority can result in
Subject specific skills
- the ability to analyse large bodies of evidence (especially as students read and select material to use in seminars, essays and the project);
- lateral and creative thought (for example when analysing primary texts);
- analysis and construction of argument (in seminars, essays and presentations)
- clear and effective communication (orally in seminars/presentations, in written form in essays);
- skills of debate and discussion (seminars and presentations);
- the ability to work independently, with self-discipline and effective time management at complex and sustained tasks (for example, when researching, formulating and writing the essays);
- basic competence in I.T (when recovering material from websites; using library catalogues; in presentation eg PowerPoint; and in word-processing essays);
- the ability to appreciate and analyse different ideas regarding the structure of the Nazi state.
Some works that are important for this module are the following:
Kershaw I. & Lewin M. (eds.), Stalinism and Nazism: Dictatorships in Comparison (Cambridge, 1997)
Kershaw I., The Nazi Dictatorship (London 2000)
Kallis A. (ed.), The Fascism reader (Routledge, 2002)
Koonz C., Mothers in the Fatherland. Women, the Family and Nazi Politics (London, 1988)
Kater M., Hitler Youth (Cambridge, MA. & London, 2003).
A detailed bibliography will be supplied in the module handbook.
Courses including this module
Optional in courses:
- V400: BA Archaeology year 3 (BA/ARCH)
- 3QV1: BA History and English Literature year 3 (BA/ELH)
- P3V1: BA Film Studies and History year 3 (BA/FSH)
- V100: BA History year 3 (BA/H)
- V103: BA History and Archaeology year 3 (BA/HA)
- VV41: BA Herit, Archae & Hist year 3 (BA/HAH)
- MVX1: BA History/Criminology year 3 (BA/HCR)
- LV11: BA History/Economics year 3 (BA/HEC)
- RV11: BA History/French year 4 (BA/HFR)
- RV21: BA History/German year 4 (BA/HG)
- RV31: BA History/Italian year 4 (BA/HIT)
- VW13: BA History and Music year 3 (BA/HMU)
- RV41: BA History/Spanish year 4 (BA/HSP)
- LVJ1: BA Cymdeithaseg/Hanes year 3 (BA/HSW)
- V140: BA Modern & Contemporary History year 3 (BA/MCH)
- V130: BA Mediaeval and Early Modern His year 3 (BA/MEMH)
- WV33: Music & Hist & Welsh Hist (IE) year 4 (BA/MHIE)
- VVV1: BA Philosophy and Religion and History year 3 (BA/PRH)
- LV31: BA Sociology/History year 3 (BA/SH)
- LV41: BA Social Policy/History year 3 (BA/SPH)
- LVK1: BA Polisi Cymdeithasol/Hanes year 3 (BA/SPWH)
- QV51: BA Cymraeg/History year 3 (BA/WH)
- VV12: BA Welsh History/History year 3 (BA/WHH)