Modules for course PQ53 | BA/ELJO
BA English Language & Journalism

These were the modules for this course in the 2017–18 academic year.

You can also view the modules offered in the years: 2018–19; 2019–20.

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Year 1 Modules

Compulsory Modules

Semester 1

  • UXS-1001: Intro to Practical Journalism (20) Core
    The Basics of Writing a News Story; How to write Intros, Drop Intros, Lively Intros; What makes a good news story?; Where do stories come from?; How to build a contacts book; How to conduct an interview; Writing for TV and Radio; Colour and Feature Writing; An Introduction to Shorthand; How to deal with breaking news.
    or
    UXC-1001: Cyfl. i Newyddiaduraeth Ymarf. (20) Core
    Hanfodion ysgrifennu straeon newyddion; Sut i ysgrifennu Intros, Drop Intros, ac Intros Bywiog; Beth sy’n gwneud stori dda?; O le mae straeon yn dod?; Sut i greu llyfr contacts; Sut i gynnal cyfweliad; Ysgrifennu ar gyfer teledu a radio; Ysgrifennu erthyglau nodwedd; Cyflwyniad i llawfer; Ymdopi â newyddion sy’n torri.
  • QXL-1110: Introduction to Language (20) Core
    The course provides an overview of a wide range of topics in the study of natural language, including: 1. What is language? 2. Morphology: words and their structure. 3. Phonetics and Phonology: language sounds and sound systems. 4. Syntax: sentence structure 5. Semantics and Pragmatics: meaning and context 6. Language variation. 7. Language change. 8. Language acquisition 9. Language pathologies 10. Language and the brain Furthermore, the course provides guidance on how to plan & write an essay as well as other assessment methods, and on how to prepare effectively for examinations.

Semester 2

  • UXS-1004: History of Journal & Pub Sph. (20) Core
    This course starts by presenting and critiquing Jurgen Habermas’ ideal of the public sphere. It then examines the various forces that he suggests constitute the public sphere’s corruption – namely the forces of propaganda, public relations, interest groups, neo-liberalism and market pressures. Taking a range of analytical perspectives (critical-theoretical, historical, political-economic and sociological) the rise of market-driven journalism will be examined, as will journalism’s struggle to establish its independence from the state and the state’s consequent attempts at manipulation and censorship. Throughout, a range of journalistic ideals, forms and practices, such as the radical press, objective journalism and investigative journalism, will be critically analysed and evaluated.
  • UXS-1038: Intro' to Media Practice (20)
    This course will introduce students to the basic skills and techniques which will enable them to explore the principles of media production through creative work. Students will work in groups to produce two short media texts, using broadcast standard equipment. Students will also be taught how to analyse their own work within the context of theory, and to establish a relationship between media production theory and practice.
    or
    UXC-1038: Cyf. i Ymarfer y Cyfryngau (20)
    Bydd y cwrs hwn yn cyflwyno myfyrwyr i'r sgiliau a'r technegau sylfaenol fydd yn eu galluogi i archwilio egwyddorion cynhyrchu'r cyfryngau trwy waith creadigol. Bydd myfyrwyr yn gweithio mewn grwpiau i gynhyrchu dau destun cyfryngau byr, gan ddefnyddio offer darlledu safonol. Caiff myfyrwyr hefyd eu dysgu i ddadansoddi eu gwaith eu hunain yng nghyd-destun theori, a chreu cysylltiad rhwng theori ac ymarfer cynhyrchu'r cyfryngau.

Optional Modules

40 credits from:

  • QXL-1113: Language and Society (20) (Semester 1)
    Sociolinguistic variability means that people use language in various different ways, depending on their social background and the current situation they are in. We will consider this phenomenon using three interrelated perspectives of studying variability: • Linguistic variables: Which aspects of the English language are variable? • Social (and regional) variables: How do speakers differ & which social aspects lead to using the English language in different ways? • Situational variables: When do speakers use which variants of English? Along these lines, the basic terminology used in this field will be introduced and employed for discussion, and empirical insights gained by sociolinguists will be examined critically.
    or
    QCB-1113: Iaith a Chymdeithas (20) (Semester 1)
  • QXL-1115: Intro to Phonetics & Phonology (20) (Semester 1 + 2)
    This class is an introduction to the phonetics of spoken languages, covering articulatory phonetics, acoustics, and introductory phonology. Areas covered include: anatomy of the vocal tract and terminology used to describe speech articulators, articulatory phonetics, with an emphasis on the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) and how to use it to transcribe speech, an introduction to acoustic theory as it relates to speech sounds, the nature of phonological patterns (alternation and phonotactics), melody and prosody, and the structural representation of speakers’ phonological knowledge. The knowledge and skills acquired here will be essential for many other modules and/or projects.
  • QXL-1116: Introduction to Meaning (20) (Semester 2)
    1. Introduction: What is semantics? Meaning - communication and significance. The semiotic triangle: mind language world and meaning. Lexemes. Sense / reference / denotation / connotation. 2. Semantics: Meaning - Word meaning and sentence meaning. Literal versus non literal. Utterance, sentences and propositions. Semantics and pragmatics 3. Meaning, Thought & Reality - Reference: types. Mental representations: concepts, necessary and sufficient conditions, prototypes, and relations between concepts. Linguistic Relativity. Thought & Reality. 4. Semantic Description - Words and grammatical categories. Words and lexical items, Lexical relations (homonymy, polysemy, synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy, meronymy) 5. Sentence Relations and Truth - Logic and truth, Necessary Truth, A Priori truth and Analyticity, Entailment and Presupposition. 6. Pragmatics: Making sense of each other linguistically - Context and Structure 7. Speech Act Theory & the Cooperative Principle 8. Politeness Theories 9. Critical Discourse Analysis 10. Intercultural Pragmatics
  • QXL-1117: Intro to Morphology & Syntax (20) (Semester 1 + 2)
    The module will be split between the study of syntax and the study or morphology in the ration 60:40. 1. Morphemes: the parts of a word. 2. Types of affix and affix ordering 3. The productivity of affixation. 4. Word-formation without affixes. 5. Compounding 6. Syntactic classification: Parts of Speech and functional relations. 7. Syntactic structure and Immediate Constituent Analysis. 8. Recursion and the generation of syntactic structure. 9. Heads and their dependents 10. Syntactic relations within the sentence. 11. Relations between sentence types.
  • QCL-1145: Disgrifio'r Gymraeg (20) (Semester 2)
    • Rhannau ymadrodd y Gymraeg • Cystrawen a threfn geiriol sylfaenol y Gymraeg • Morffoleg sylfaenol y Gymraeg • Ffonoleg a seineg (h.y. sain) sylfaenol y Gymraeg a sut i drawsgrifio’r Gymraeg gan ddefnyddio’r IPA • Disgrifio Cymraeg ffurfiol o safbwynt ieithyddol • Cyflwyniad i ddisgrifio tafodieithoedd y Gymraeg mewn modd ieithyddol • Dylanwad y Saesneg ac ieithoedd eraill ar y Gymraeg (e.e. benthyg, ymyrraeth) • Cymharu’r Gymraeg ag ieithoedd lleiafrifol eraill • Dyfodol y Gymraeg o safbwynt gramadegol

Year 2 Modules

Compulsory Modules

Semester 1

  • QXL-2222: History of English (20) Core
    1. Studying the History of English. 2. The Sounds and Writing of English 3. Causes and Mechanisms of Language Change. 4. The Indo-European Language Family and Proto-Indo European. 5. Germanic and the Development of English. 6. The Sounds and Words of Old English. 7. The Grammar of Old English. 8. The Rise of Middle English: Words and Sounds 9. The Grammar of Middle English and the Rise of a Written Standard. 10. The Sounds and Inflections of Early Modern English. 11. Early Modern English Verbal Constructions and Eighteenth-Century Prescriptivism. 12. Modern English.

Semester 2

  • UXS-2033: Practical Digital Journalism (20)
    The course will begin with an introduction to on-line journalism, the influence of new digital technology on journalism and its implications for traditional forms of media. We will also discuss the ethical and legal issues involved in producing on-line content. You will be taught a range of skills including how gather news on-line, write and produce visual and audio content for digital news platforms and how to ensure that content reaches a wide audience. You will be expected to put these skills into practice and create your own digital news platform, create content from that platform and distribute that content to the widest possible audience.
  • UXS-2099: Research and Methods (20)
    Introduction; choosing a research topic Writing a research proposal Research Paradigms: Positivism vs Interpretivism Working with texts 1: Textual analysis Working with texts 2: Content analysis Fieldwork 1: Questionnaires, interviews and focus groups Fieldwork 2: Ethnography and participant observation Case study approaches Quantitative and qualitative sampling issues Research Ethics Doing a literature review; writing a dissertation

40 credits from:

  • UXS-2038: Journalism and Risk (20) (Semester 1)
    This course starts by presenting and critiquing the concept of risk, and the development of the field of risk communication. It then examines two key theorists of the 'risk society', namely Ulrich Beck and Anthony Giddens, to explore sociological theoretical foundations that explain inter-relationships of risk, trust, expertise and mass-mediated communication. Building on this theoretical lens, it then moves to examine journalism, risk and trust, looking at patterns of risk reporting in different aspects of the press. In-depth analysis of specific risk issues and their journalistic communication are examined, ranging from health risks like 'mad cow' disease to security risks like terrorism.
  • UXS-2076: Global News Agenda (20) (Semester 2)
    Topics that this module will discuss include: the CNN effect; manipulating global news agendas through public diplomacy; war, perception management and bearing witness through global media forms; reporting distant suffering; satellite news wars; the rise of satellite news in the Middle East and the possible rise of an Arab public sphere; and the impact of global news forms on censorship and resistance.
  • UXS-2401: Practical Journalism: ELD (20) (Semester 1)
    The course will teach students media law and how to report on the workings of government. They will gain practical experience in reporting from courts, inquests and council meetings. They will also be taught how to write and research news and feature articles, interviewing techniques, and how to cover running stories and elections.
    or
    UXC-2401: Newyddiaduraeth Ymarferol: MCD (20) (Semester 1)
    Bydd y modiwl yn dysgu myfyrwyr am gyfraith y cyfryngau a sut i ohebu am brosesau'r llywodraeth. Byddant yn cael profiad ymarferol o ohebu am achosion llys, cwestau a chyfarfodydd cyngor. Byddant hefyd yn dysgu sut i ymchwilio ac ysgrifennu erthyglau newyddion ac erthyglau nodwedd, technegau cyfweld a sut i ymdrin â straeon parhaol ac etholiadau.

Optional Modules

40 credits from:

  • QXL-2201: Sounds and Sound Systems (20) (Semester 2)
    1. articulatory phonetics, 2. spectrographic analysis, 3. the interaction of melody and prosody, 4. the nature of phonological rules, 5. the structural representation of speakers’ phonological knowledge.
  • QXL-2202: Meaning, Mind and Truth (20) (Semester 1 + 2)
    1) Language, meaning and mind 2) Universals and Variation in Language, Thought & Experience 3) Embodiment and Conceptual structure 4) Encyclopaedic Semantics 5) Metaphor 6) Metonymy 7) Word meaning and radial categories 8) Mental Spaces and Compositional Semantics 9) Conceptual Blending 10) The semantic basis of grammar
  • QXL-2204: Morphosyntax (20) (Semester 1 + 2)
    This module provides an intermediate level framework in which to both study and apply key ideas, terms and concepts on the fields of morphology and syntax. There are two goals for this course. The first goal is to introduce students to more advanced ideas and principles central to the study of both morphology and syntax. The second goal is to provide students with the tools to apply the terms and principles to data / problem sets from a range of languages in order to conduct morphological and /or syntactical analysis. The lectures will provide students with the “big picture”, i.e. central ideas are summarized, important terms and principles defined and theoretical implications outlined. In the tutorials, students discuss key elements in detail and reflect on theoretical implications and apply the knowledge gained to cross linguistic examples and/or data sets. The following are representative topics: 1: Review: Introduction, word structure, types of morphemes. 2: Productivity, Inflectional morphology 3: Morphological mappings of grammatical function 4: Grammatical relations 5: Dependency relations 6: Constituent structure 7: Theories of syntax
  • QCL-2245: Ieithyddiaeth Gymraeg (20) (Semester 1)
    • Orthograffeg (sillafu) y Gymraeg • Agweddau canolradd o ffonoleg a seineg y Gymraeg • Agweddau canolradd o gystrawen y Gymraeg • Agweddau canolradd o forffoleg y Gymraeg • Agweddau canolradd o eirfa’r Gymraeg • Treiglo yn y Gymraeg • Agweddau canolradd o dafodieithoedd y Gymraeg • Creu ac astudio corpysau ieithyddol Cymraeg • Y Gymraeg yn y gymdeithas heddiw (e.e. ar y We, teledu) • Symud iaith, newid iaith a marwolaeth iaith o safbwynt gramadegol
  • QXL-2250: Functions of Discourse (20) (Semester 2)
    In the first part of this module we will focus on the theory of Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG) so as to grasp its basic mechanisms, and identify the main lexicogrammatical structures that are available to speakers of English. The second part will be dedicated to issues around discourse and context. We will look at theories and findings based on SFG, and analyse instances of discourse, exploiting theory to gain insights about the meaning and significance of specific linguistic choices for the discourse area they appear in. Along with theory and analysis, we will consider implications for English language education. Whilst lectures will provide the theoretical and conceptual foundations of SFG and SFG based discourse analysis, the tutorials will be used for discussion, case presentations, and exercises as appropriate for each week's topic. The following topics will be covered: 1. Introduction: SFG and its purposes 2. SFG theory: Clause as message – the textual function 3. SFG theory: Clause as exchange – the interpersonal function 4. SFG theory: Clause as representation – the ideational function 5. SFG theory: Above and below the clause 6. SFG theory: Around the clause – cohesion and discourse 7. Interpreting discourse: Approaches and findings using SFG tools 8. Working with discourse: Appraisal 9. Working with discourse: Ideation 10. Working with discourse: Conjunction and identification 11. Interpreting discourse at different levels of proficiency
  • QCL-2271: Amrywiaeth yn y Gymraeg (20) (Semester 2)
    • Tafodieitheg a thafodieithoedd y Gymraeg • William Labov a theori sosioieithyddiaeth amrywiaethol • Newidynnau annibynnol ieithyddol (e.e. oedran, rhyw, grŵp cymdeithasol) • Amrywiaeth yng ngwahanol rannau o ramadeg y Gymraeg (e.e. ffonoleg, geirfa, morffoleg, cystrawen, cyfnewid cod, treiglo) • Theori ac astudiaethau o newid iaith yn y cyd-destun Cymraeg a thu hwnt • Cymraeg hanesyddol (e.e. Cymraeg Canol) • Hanfodion casglu data sosioieithyddol • Hanfodion dadansoddi data sosioieithyddol (gan gynnwys sesiynau ymarferol)

Year 3 Modules

Compulsory Modules

60 credits from:

  • UXS-3038: Journalism and Risk (20) (Semester 1)
    This course starts by presenting and critiquing the concept of risk, and the development of the field of risk communication. It then examines two key theorists of the 'risk society', namely Ulrich Beck and Anthony Giddens, to explore sociological theoretical foundations that explain inter-relationships of risk, trust, expertise and mass-mediated communication. Building on this theoretical lens, it then moves to examine journalism, risk and trust, looking at patterns of risk reporting in different aspects of the press. In-depth analysis of specific risk issues and their journalistic communication are examined, ranging from health risks like 'mad cow' disease to security risks like terrorism.
  • UXS-3076: Global News Agenda (20) (Semester 2)
    Topics that this module will discuss include: the CNN effect; manipulating global news agendas through public diplomacy; war, perception management and bearing witness through global media forms; reporting distant suffering; satellite news wars; the rise of satellite news in the Middle East and the possible rise of an Arab public sphere; and the impact of global news forms on censorship and resistance.
  • UXS-3090: Dissertation (40) (Semester 1 + 2)
    This module is a period of supervised research culminating in the submission of a 10,000-word dissertation worth 40 credits. In week six students will make a 10 minute oral presentation on the progress of their research to date. Students wishing to produce a piece of practice-based audio-visual research (e.g. a fiction or non-fiction television, film or radio piece) must normally register for UXS 3091 (Final Year Group Project), although there is opportunity to employ creative methodologies so for practice-based students to utilise their learning and skills in a research context.
    or
    UXC-3090: Ast'th Unigol neu Draethawd (40) (Semester 1 + 2)
    Mae'r modiwl hwn yn datblygu ar yr hyn a astudiwyd yn y modiwl UXS 2092 yn yr ail flwyddyn. Cyfnod o ymchwil dan oruchwyliaeth fydd yn arwain at gyflwyno traethawd hir 10,000 o eiriau gwerth 40 credyd yw'r modiwl hwn. Yn wythnos 6, bydd gofyn i fyfyrwyr roi cyflwyniad llafar 10 munud ar hynt eu hymchwil hyd yma. Fel rheol, dylai myfyrwyr sydd eisiau gwneud ymchwil clyweledol yn seiliedig ar ymarfer (e.e. darn teledu, ffilm neu radio ffuglen neu ffeithiol) gofrestru ar UXS 3091 (project grŵp blwyddyn olaf) yn lle’r modiwl hwn, er bod cyfle i ddefnyddio methodolegau creadigol er mwyn i fyfyrwyr ar gyrsiau sy'n seiliedig ar ymarfer allu defnyddio eu dysgu a'u sgiliau mewn cyd-destun ymchwil. Ni ellir cymryd y modiwl hwn gyda UXS 3090. Mae'n rhaid ichi fod wedi astudio UXS 2099 NEU UXS 2092 er mwyn dilyn y modiwl hwn.
  • UXS-3092: Dissertation - Action Research (40) (Semester 1 + 2)
  • UXS-3401: Practical Journalism: ELD (20) (Semester 1)
    The course will teach students media law and how to report on the workings of government. They will gain practical experience in reporting from courts, inquests and council meetings. They will also be taught how to write and research news and feature articles, interviewing techniques, and how to cover running stories and elections.
    or
    UXC-3401: Newyddiaduraeth Ymarferol: MCD (20) (Semester 1)
    Bydd y modiwl yn dysgu myfyrwyr am gyfraith y cyfryngau a sut i ohebu am brosesau'r llywodraeth. Byddant yn cael profiad ymarferol o ohebu am achosion llys, cwestau a chyfarfodydd cyngor. Byddant hefyd yn dysgu sut i ymchwilio ac ysgrifennu erthyglau newyddion ac erthyglau nodwedd, technegau cyfweld a sut i ymdrin â straeon parhaol ac etholiadau.
  • Students may choose Dissertation in other subject

Optional Modules

60 credits from:

  • QXL-3313: EFL Theory (20) (Semester 1)
    This module provides an overview of TEFL theory by examining a wide range of contexts in which language teaching and learning takes place. Topics will include the following: 1. The use of English within a global context. 2. Language awareness in the classroom. 3. English teaching methodologies. 4. Analysis of teaching English to speakers of other languages based on research articles and DVD material: affective factors and classroom interaction. 5. Implementing and evaluating curriculum change.
  • QXL-3320: SLA and Language Teaching (20) (Semester 2)
    The topics covered in this module would be the following: 1. Background to SLA Research 2. Individual differences in L2 users and L2 learners 3. L1 transfer: Code-switching and Second Language Learning 4. Theories of L2 acquisition 5. The role of age in L2 acquisition 6. The goals of language teaching and assessment 7. The L2 user and the native speaker 8. Embedding SLA research into Language teaching
  • QXL-3329: Teaching EFL (20) (Semester 1 + 2)
    This module provides an introduction to the teaching of EFL through practice and theory and by examining a range of contexts in which English language teaching and learning takes place. Topics will include the following: 1. The nature of EFL teaching contexts. 2. Methodologies employed in the EFL classroom. 3. The role of the teacher of EFL. 4. Strategies used teaching vocabulary, grammar, writing, speaking, reading & listening. 5. Factors affecting lesson planning and materials choice/design. 6. Reflective practice – evaluating teaching and lesson aims.
  • QXL-3335: Bilingual & Acquisition Issues (20) (Semester 1)
    Topics will change from year to year and may include: 1. Bilingual social interaction 2. Bilingual first language acquisition 3. Second language acquisition 4. Multilingualism 5. Issues of identity 6. The bilingual brain
  • QXL-3336: Phonology in Bilingual Acq. (20) (Semester 1)
    This module provides an overview of how simultaneous bilinguals develop knowledge of the sound systems of their two languages and how that knowledge is represented in their minds. There are three goals for this course. The first goal is to introduce students to key findings and central debates in research on bilingual acquisition of phonology. The second goal is to provide students with the tools to critically examine the existing literature, particularly with regard to explaining phenomena in bilingual phonology through theory development and evaluation. The third goal is to equip the students with the ability to appropriately frame narrow research hypotheses in view of well-known phenomena and to apply this ability to their own research. The lectures will present and discuss specific issues from current research (mostly from research articles) while also outlining open questions on the topic. In the seminars, students discuss key studies in more detail and reflect on methodologies, results and theoretical implications. The topics will include: 1. Introduction to the acquisition of phonology in bilinguals 2. Phonological organisation in bilinguals 3. Transfer effects in phonology 4. Acceleration effects in phonology 5. The acquisition of melody and segmental content in bilinguals. 6. Phonotactic effects in bilingual acquisition 7. The bilingual acquisition of prosodic patterns.
  • QXL-3341: Dissertation (40) (Semester 1 + 2)
    Topics vary depending on individual students choices, and the emphasis is on individual study. However, they relate to a wide array of issues in linguistics and/or English Language studies. However, classes will include: • How to formulate a research question • Producing a research proposal • Research methodologies • Statistics
    or
    QCB-3341: Traethawd Hir/Dissertation (40) (Semester 1 + 2)
    Topics vary depending on individual students’ choices. However, they relate to a wide array of issues in linguistics and/or English Language studies.
  • QCL-3370: Agweddau ar Ddwyieithrwydd (20) (Semester 1)
    • Cymru a’r Gymraeg yn y cyd-destun dwyieithog • Diffinio dwyieithrwydd • Dwyieithrwydd unigol vs. dwyieithrwydd cymdeithasol • Caffael iaith mewn cyd-destun dwyieithog • Addysg ddwyieithog yng Nghymru a thu hwnt • Polisïau iaith yn y cyd-destun dwyieithog Cymreig • Cyfnewid côd o safbwynt cymdeithasol a gramadegol • Agweddau seicoieithyddol o ddwyieithrwydd • Agweddau pobl ar ddwyieithrwydd ac ieithoedd lleiafrifol • Newid iaith, marwolaeth iaith a dyfodol y Gymraeg
  • QXL-3376: Cognitive Discourse Analysis (20) (Semester 1)
    The module will start by considering what kinds of thoughts, concepts, and cognitive processes can be accessed through language, and then discuss each step of a research process that involves verbalisation of thought: from identifying a suitable research question via data collection and transcription to analysis, interpretation, and triangulation with other kinds of data. The main emphasis will lie on the systematic analysis of linguistic choices, aiming to identify indicators for specific cognitive phenomena that are of interest for the research purpose at hand. In this process, insights from the wider field of cognitive linguistics highlight the significance of specific linguistic choices. While lectures will provide the theoretical and conceptual foundations needed for doing CODA, the tutorials will be used for discussion and exercises as appropriate for each step of the analysis procedure. The following topics will be covered: 1. Introduction: CODA and its purposes 2. Scientific background I: Cognitive Linguistics 3. Scientific background II: Cognitive Psychology 4. Research questions for CODA 5. Data collection techniques and data preparation (transcription and unitisation) 6. Content analysis 7. Resources for linguistic analysis I: Cognitive Linguistics 8. Resources for linguistic analysis II: Functional grammar and discourse structure analysis techniques 9. Linguistic feature analysis I: Mental representations 10. Linguistic feature analysis II: Problem solving processes 11. Interpreting results and establishing relations to other findings
  • QXL-3377: Using Corpora: Theory&Practice (20) (Semester 2)
    This module introduces students to the theoretical and practical issues of using corpora in linguistic studies and helps them to develop the background, knowledge and skills needed in order to develop and utilize a corpus based approach in their own research projects. The goals of this module are two-fold. First the students will be introduced and become familiar with the technical aspects of course based approaches and research. Then, attention will be directed to looking at how corpora and corpuses based approaches are used in a range of linguistic and language oriented studies. The lectures will provide students with the “big picture”, i.e. different research domains will be explored, central topics are summarized, important studies discussed and open questions outlined. In the tutorials, students discuss key studies in detail and reflect on methodologies, results and implications. The following topics will be covered: 1. Introducing corpus linguistics, corpus design, types of corpora and corpus annotation 2. Corpus analysis: concordance, wordlist, keyword analysis 3. Integrating stats and making statistic claims 4. Corpora in grammatical studies 5. Corpora in diachronic studies 6. Metaphor and Corpus Linguistics (A. Deignan) 7. Corpus Approaches to Critical Metaphor Analysis (J. Charteris-Black) 8. Corpora in critical discourse analysis (C. Hart) 9. Corpora language variation research 10. Corpora in sociolinguistic studies 11. Corpora in language education - focus on TEFL.