Run by School of Ocean Sciences
10 Credits or 5 ECTS Credits
Organiser: Dr Luis Gimenez Noya
Overall aims and purpose
The life cycle of ca 70% of marine invertebrates includes a larval phase living in a different environment than parents. Larvae are in general more sensitive to changes in environmental conditions than other stages such as embryos, juveniles or adults. In many cases, population persistence depends on larval recruitment: this is evidenced through the development of the supply side ecology, match-mismatch hypothesis or earlier ideas on the importance of recruitment in fisheries. Larval ecology has been defined as the study of processes affecting larval patterns of distribution and the consequences on the abundance of other life phases. Larval ecology therefore attempts to integrated processes occurring during the whole life cycle of organisms The objective of this module is to introduce students to the field of larval ecology, i.e. to provide information about the processes affecting larval survival and growth and how these affect populations and communities of marine organisms. The module will cover larval physiology, life history and ecology. Focus will be given to marine invertebrates although some references to fish may be made during the lectures.
This module will cover:
• The diversity of life cycle and larval forms existing in the sea.
• Patterns of diversity of larval forms in relation temperature, salinity and latitudinal gradients
• Ecological factors affecting the process of spawning and larval release
• Maternal effects and developmental variability
• Pelagic larvae: physiological adaptations to pelagic life (salinity, temperature, food conditions)
• Larval transport: the combined effect of larval behaviour and hydrodynamics
• Larval settlement and metamorphosis
• Processes affecting recruitment (larval transport, match/mismatch with food, settlement behaviour and post-settlement processes, larval traits)
• Effects of climate change on populations driven by processes affecting larval stages
This module will consider the environmental factors that determine (a) the distribution and abundance of a diversity of larval forms (b) growth and survival of organisms during the early life.
Topics covered are:
(1) Types of larvae and modes of development
(2) Links among life history and larval-specific traits: examples at inter and intra-specific level
(3) Patterns of distribution of larval forms according to latitude, temperature and salinity
(4) Ecological factors affecting spawning
(5) Ecological and evolutionary factors affecting larval release
(6) Pelagic larvae: quantification of larval mortality; effects of predation and salinity
(7) Pelagic larvae: effects of temperature and food
(8) Larval locomotion: behavioural responses to cues
(9) Larval transport and distribution: patterns and processes
(10) Processes affecting settlement and metamorphosis
(11) Supply side ecology: the important of larval supply and settlement for marine populations
(12) The role of larval behaviour and supply in determining the strength of post-settlement processes and community structure
(13) Trait mediated effects: the role of larval experience on post-metamorphic performance
Knowledge and basic understanding reliant entirely on the taught programme. Basic understanding of subject-specific theories, concepts and principles. Presents a competent overview of an extreme habitat in their assessment
Wider knowledge and moderate understanding based on the taught programme, but with evidence of enquiry beyond that. Understanding of subject-specific theories, concepts and principles and some understanding of specialist areas. Presents a detailed, well researched and illustrated assessment showing clear understanding of the topic and questions posed.
A very wide knowledge base extending well beyond the directly taught programme showing an in-depth understanding of the concepts presented. Thorough understanding of subject-specific theories, concepts and principles and in-depth understanding of more specialist areas. Presents an insightful, carefully argued, illustrated assessment showing clear evidence of independent thought.
Identify patterns of diversity of larval forms, and their response to ecological factors
Understand how processes affecting organisms at adult stages affect patterns of spawning, larval release as well as key larval traits
Understand main theories and hypotheses about recruitment of marine organisms
Understand applications of larval ecology to areas such as conservation, fishery management or climate change
Understand how larval respond and adapt to variable environmental conditions (temperature, food salinity, predator) existing in the pelagic habitat
Understand how patterns of larval transport, distribution and settlement are driven by combinations of behaviour and hydrodynamics.
Understand how larval experience or patterns of larval settlement affect recruitment, population dynamics or community structure in benthic invertebrates
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Teaching and Learning Strategy
Fifteen one hour lectures at two lectures per week.
- Literacy - Proficiency in reading and writing through a variety of media
- Computer Literacy - Proficiency in using a varied range of computer software
- Information retrieval - Able to access different and multiple sources of information
- Presentation - Able to clearly present information and explanations to an audience. Through the written or oral mode of communication accurately and concisely.
Subject specific skills
- Recognize and apply appropriate theories and concepts from a range of disciplines.
- Consider issues from a range of interdisciplinary perspectives.
- Appreciation of the complexity and diversity of life processes through the study of organisms.
Talis Reading listhttp://readinglists.bangor.ac.uk/modules/osx-3014.html
Courses including this module
Optional in courses:
- C163: BSC Applied Marine Biology year 4 (BSC/AMB4)
- C166: BSc Applied Marine Biology (with International Experience) year 4 (BSC/AMB4IE)
- CC13: BSC Marine Biology/Zoology year 3 (BSC/BMZ)
- 8B76: BSc Marine Biology and Zoology (with International Exp) year 4 (BSC/BMZIE)
- CC1P: BSc Marine Biology with Zoology with Placement Year year 4 (BSC/BMZP)
- C160: BSC Marine Biology year 3 (BSC/MB)
- C16F: BSc Marine Biology year 3 (BSC/MBF)
- C165: BSc Marine Biology (with International Experience) year 4 (BSC/MBIE)
- 2W79: MMBiol Marine Biology (with International Experience) year 4 (MMBIOL/MBI)
- C167: MSci Marine Biology year 3 (MSCI/MB)
- C169: MSci Marine Biology and Zoology year 3 (MSCI/MBZ)